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Prison and Jails PowerPoint Presentation
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Prison and Jails

Prison and Jails

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Prison and Jails

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  1. 13 Prison and Jails

  2. Chapter Agenda • Describe the history of punishment, concluding with its impact on the modern philosophy of corrections • List major milestones in the historical development of prisons • Describe the purpose and major characteristics of today’s prisons

  3. Chapter Agenda • Summarize the role jails currently play in American corrections and issues jail administrators face • Describe the current and likely future roles of private prisons

  4. Learning Objective Describe the history of punishment, concluding with its impact on the modern philosophy of corrections

  5. History of Punishment • Lex talionis • Flogging • Mutilation/amputation • Branding • Public humiliation • Exile • Workhouses

  6. Learning Objective List major milestones in the historical development of prisons

  7. Prisons and Jails • Humanitarian alternative to corporal punishment • Earliest records of a prison are dated back to the middle ages • Incarceration became a primary form of sentence for the poor • Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1787

  8. History of Prisons and Jails • The Pennsylvania System, 1790 • The Auburn System, 1819 • The Reformatory Movement, 1877 • Industrial Era, 1890–1935 • Punitive Era, 1935-1945 • Treatment Era, 1945-1967 • Community-based Treatment Era, 1967-1980 • Warehousing Era, 1980-1995

  9. Learning Objective Describe the purpose and major characteristics of today’s prisons

  10. The State Prison System • Classification system • A system used by prison administrators to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, perceived risk of escape, and other factors • Supermax security level • Maximum security level • Medium security level • Minimum security level

  11. The Federal Prison System • Federal Bureau of Prisons • Over 80 different types of federal correctional facilities • Ranging from supermax prisons to minimum security prison farms

  12. Learning Objective Summarize the role jails currently play in American corrections and issues jail administrators face

  13. The Just Desserts Era, 1995 - Present • A contemporary model of imprisonment in which the “just desserts” principle forms the underlying social philosophy • A return to punishment as the root purpose of imprisonment • Imprisonment seen as fully deserved consequence of crime • An emphasis on individual responsibility • A focus on limiting inmate privileges and increase the pains of imprisonment

  14. State Prisons • One out of every four state institutions is a large, maximum security prison with a population approaching 1,000 inmates • Profile of prisoners • Low level of formal education • Socially disadvantaged background. • Lack of significant vocational skill. • Most have served time in a juvenile facility

  15. Current Uses for Jails • Receive individuals pending arraignment and those awaiting trial, conviction, or sentencing • Detain juveniles, mentally ill, and others pending transfer • Release convicted inmates to the community upon completion of their sentence

  16. Current Uses for Jails • Transfer inmates to, or house inmates for, federal, state, or other authorities • Operate community-based programs with day reporting, home detention, electronic monitoring, or other types of supervision • Readmit probation, parole, and bail-bond violators and absconders

  17. Jails • There are 3,365 jails operating in U.S. • Approximately 207,000 jail employees • Average cost is $15,000 per year/ per inmate • Most jails are designed to house 50 or fewer inmates • 6% of the jails hold over 50% of the prisoners

  18. Jails • Los Angeles County jail is the largest jail in the U.S • 2008 daily average population 22,349 inmates(87% capacity) • New York City jail is second largest • 2008 daily average population of 19,554 inmates(71% capacity) • Los Angeles & New York City together held 5.33% of all jail inmates in 2008

  19. Issues in Prisons Today • Pregnancy • Drug abuse • Overcrowding • Education level of inmates • Mental health issues

  20. Learning Objective Describe the current and likely future roles of private prisons

  21. Private Prisons • Privatization • Prisons operated for state and federal government by private enterprise for profit • Numerous issues