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Chapter 12 Prison Life: Living In and Leaving Prison

Chapter 12 Prison Life: Living In and Leaving Prison. Learning Objectives. Discuss the problems of the adult correctional system. Know what is meant by the term of “total institution.” Differentiate between a no-frills and a rehabilitation philosophy.

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Chapter 12 Prison Life: Living In and Leaving Prison

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  1. Chapter 12Prison Life: Living In and Leaving Prison

  2. Learning Objectives • Discuss the problems of the adult correctional system. • Know what is meant by the term of “total institution.” • Differentiate between a no-frills and a rehabilitation philosophy. • Chart the prisonization process and the development of the inmate social code. • Compare the lives and cultures of male and female inmates. • Be familiar with the different forms of correctional treatment. • Discuss the world of correctional officers. • Understand the cause of prison violence • Know what is meant by prisoners’ rights, and discuss some key privileges that have been granted to inmates. • Be knowledgeable about the parole process and the problems of prisoner reentry.

  3. Men Imprisoned • Total institutions • Personal losses include deprivation of liberty, goods and services, heterosexual relationships, autonomy, and security • Loneliness and dangers of prison life

  4. Sexual Coercion • Highest rates in barracks style housing/large populations/lax security • Young males raped & kept as sex slaves by older inmates • Prison Rape Reduction Act of 2003 • Research on rape not consistent in findings

  5. Adjusting to Prison • Attitude and behavior changes • Medical problems • Segregation • The inmate social code • Prisonization

  6. The New Inmate Culture • Precipitated by black power movement in the 1960’s and 70’s • Racial polarity and tension • Groups formed as a result of: • Religious or political affiliations • Combat discrimination • Previous street gang membership

  7. Women Imprisoned • Before 1960 fewer women in prison • Four institutions built between 1930 and 1950 • 34 women’s prisons built during 1980s

  8. Female Institutions • Size • Minimum security • Lack of health, treatment, and educational facilities • Limited vocational training

  9. Female Inmates • Primarily young, unmarried, poorly educated, minority group members • Broken homes • Physical and sexual abuse violence • Psychological/substance abuse • Sexual exploitation/abuse by staff

  10. Adapting to the Female Institution • Behavior less violent than male inmates • Anti-authority inmate social code of male institutions does not exist • May engage in self-destructive behavior • Make-believe families

  11. Guarding the Institution • Guards traditionally viewed as ruthless • Now viewed as public servants • Display a number of roles • Order maintained in prisons

  12. Female Correctional Officers • Discipline has not suffered because of the inclusion of women • Sexual assaults rare • Beneficial effect on self-image of inmates

  13. Types of Prison Violence

  14. Causes of Individual Violence

  15. Causes of Collective Violence

  16. Suicide & Homicide Rate in Prisons, 1980-2003 Suicide rate, 1980-2003 Suicide rate, 1980-2003 Jails Prisons 100 100 Homicides per 100,000 inmates Suicides per 100,000 inmates 50 50 0 0 1995 1995 1980 1985 1990 2000 1980 1985 1990 2000 Year Year

  17. Prisoners’ Rights • Before the early 1960s, on conviction all rights were forfeited and inmates were considered civilly dead • Hands-off doctrine • Access to courts, legal services, and materials • Freedom of the press and of expression • Freedom of religion • Medical rights • Cruel and unusual punishment • Racial segregation • Overall prison conditions

  18. Parole • Decision to parole is determined by statutory requirement • Functions of the parole board • Select and place prisoners on parole • Aid, supervise, and provide control of parolees in the community • Determine when parole has been completed and the parolee may be discharged • Whether parole should be revoked if violations occur

  19. The Parolee in the Community • Must adhere to conditions of release • Privilege and not a right • Failure to comply with conditions results in return to prison

  20. Effectiveness of Parole • More than half return to prison, many for technical violations • Re-arrests are most common in the 6 months after release • Cost of recidivism is acute – high number of new criminal offenses

  21. Percentages of Released Prisoners Rearrested within Three Years by Offense, 1983 and 1994 All 1994 1983 Violent Property Offense Drug Drug 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent of released prisoners rearrested

  22. Why Do People Fail on Parole? • Nature of prison experience • Rarely address psychological and economic problems that lead to recidivism • Little preparation for reintegration • No development of skills essential to cope • Disruption of home life while incarcerated and lack of support systems • Strong association between prior and future offending

  23. Problems of Reentry • Unprepared for life in conventional society • Growth in number of mandatory re-entries • Not assigned to supervision on release • Leave prison without any “resources” • Not employed in regular job market • Physical and mental health problems • Employers reluctant to hire ex-convicts • Loss of rights

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