1 / 29


Proposals. Dr. Thomas L. Warren, Professor Technical Writing Program Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078 twarren@okstate.edu www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr. RFP. Proposal. Recommendation. Feasibility. Overview. Proposals in general Typical parts of a proposal Questions.

Télécharger la présentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Proposals Dr. Thomas L. Warren, Professor Technical Writing Program Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078 twarren@okstate.edu www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr

  2. RFP Proposal Recommendation Feasibility Overview • Proposals in general • Typical parts of a proposal • Questions Project Completion Report

  3. Definition of Proposal • Written offer to . . . • . . . perform work, do research, or solve problems • . . . another person has—who says, “How do I solve this problem of ‘Should I convert the Accounting Department from PC-compatible computers to Mac?’” • . . . proposal writer has—who says, “I have this problem of needing funding for my research project.”

  4. Definition, cont. • Directed toward • Governmental agency or agencies • Agency has a need—Request for Proposal = RFP • Foundation • Agency has a need: RFP • Company: Internal • Department has a need: RFP

  5. Proposal Types (Generally) • Solicited: Responds to an RFP • Formal—complete with all the parts (cover, title page, front and back matter) • Informal—typically an internal memo • Unsolicited • Formal • Informal

  6. Types FORMAL/INFORMAL Proposal Solicited Unsolicited Known to Reader Known to Reader Unknown to Reader Unknown to Reader

  7. Rhetorical Situation • Your proposal will will persuade the reader that • . . . you have a task analysis with reasonable assignments • . . . and a realistic schedule with balanced work loads • . . . you are qualified to work on the problem • . . . you have a risk management plan • . . . the schedule shows that you can complete the project on time

  8. Typical Parts of a Proposal • Format • Front matter • Introduction • Body • Technical section • Management section • Cost section • Conclusion • Attachments (Appendix materials)

  9. Typical Parts of the Proposal • Technical elements—the technical solution to the problem • Management—proving that you can do what you say you will do • Cost—how much the solution will cost

  10. I. Technical Section • Focus on client’s needs • Understand the client’s . . . • . . . limitations • . . . capabilities • Presents the problem(s) • Does client know of problem? Determines . . . • . . . amount of background • . . . technical detail

  11. I. Technical Section, cont. • Technical details • Must convince client of . . . • . . . your understanding of the problem • . . . the soundness of the technical solution • Provides a plan (tasks and schedule) for solving the problem

  12. I. Technical Section, cont. • Contains • Project´s purpose/scope (limitations) • Methods/procedures (steps) and rationale • Resources (physical, personnel, literature, etc.) • Task breakdown (what will be done) and timetable (when will it be done)

  13. I. Technical Section, cont. • Schedule • Steps and tasks to solve the problem • Time each task will take • Start and end dates; relation to other tasks, duration and dependencies • Personnel working on the task • Currently available • Need to hire (justify)

  14. II. Management Section • Qualifications (prove you and your group can do the work) • Focus on requirements to complete this work • Formal schooling • Courses taken in area of work • Similar projects completed successfully • Experience • Work on similar projects • Previous proposals submitted • Reference résumés in Appendix

  15. III. Costs • Budget I (usually not published; internal) • Direct costs to you to solve the problem • Include costs of final report • Budget II (published; part of proposal) • Costs to others to complete project • Relate specifically to methods/ procedures • At Proposal stage, "GOOD" estimates • At Recommendation stage, “EXCELLENT” estimates

  16. Conclusion • Last chance to “sell” client/reader • Summary of project • Problem • Need for solution/benefits • Methods/procedures • Expected results • Costs • Urge for action by client/reader

  17. Appendix Materials • Personnel resources and qualifications • Working bibliography • Additional information reader may need—for example • Maps or photographs • Histories of problem/proposed solution(s) • Balance sheets to support need • Résumés

  18. Introduction Overview of document Establish rhetorical position Analysis of Problem and Solution(s) Audience/Client Analysis Research Plan Work Plan with Schedule and Risk Management Plan Qualifications Required Resources Typical Proposal Content

  19. Typical Sections • Introduction • Subject, purpose, scope, plan of development, assumed reader, and action for this memo • Appropriateness of topic • Feasibility of success

  20. Typical Sections, cont. • Analysis of problem and solution(s) • Statement of the problem • Scope and purpose of project • Context in which problem is situated • Significance of problem (what happens if you do not solve the problem?) • Consequences of solving the problem (economic, technical, social, etc.) • Solution criteria • Possible solution(s)

  21. Typical Sections, cont. • Analysis of client/reader • Primary reader = client (person who has approval authority) • Secondary and tertiary readers

  22. Typical Sections, cont.. • Research Plan • How will you investigate the problem/ solution(s)? • Identify • Questions to be answered • Information required—what are you looking for • Methodology for acquiring information • Resources used for research

  23. Typical Sections, cont. • Work and risk management plans • Key to convincing reader that you will solve the problem • Covers from researching the problem to writing the final report (including various drafts and presentations) • Include • Approach to the plan and schedule • Comprehensive list of tasks and responsible team member(s) • Risk management plan focused on what happens when Murphy’s Law kicks in

  24. Typical Sections, cont.. • Qualifications • Team’s qualifications for completing project • Described individually in terms of required tasks • Submit résumés focusing on this project—most companies boilerplate this section

  25. Typical Sections, cont. • Resources required to complete project • Physical resources (labs, sites, computers, etc.) • Libraries, software, and internet • Personnel (client, survey recipients, experts to consult, etc.) • Budget to solve problem • Secondary budget NOT in proposal is costs to prepare proposal • Maintained internally only

  26. Budgets Budget I Budget II Costs to solve the problem Costs to actually do the solution In Executive Summary with details in Appendix In Proposal Memo

  27. Typical Sections, cont. • Closing—request approval, willingness to answer questions, and how to contact team members

  28. Conclusion • Proposals are persuasive documents that respond to problems • Major source for products and services • Sections • Technical—problem-solution • Management—perform work described • Cost—budget to complete project • Solicited and unsolicited

  29. Questions

More Related