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BIOSPHERE Chapter 3 REVIEW

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  1. BIOSPHEREChapter 3REVIEW http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html

  2. List the 6 levels of organization that ecologists study from smallest to largest Organisms → Populations → Ecosystems → Communities → BIOSPHERE Biomes →

  3. CompetitionPredation Cooperation Symbiosis Name 4 ways organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other

  4. All the organisms that live in a place PLUS their non-living environment ecosystem Another name for autotrophs producers

  5. Grooming, sharing food, sharing care of offspring,group defense against predators group hunting; care for sick/injured Give an example of cooperation Tell the two ways AUTOtrophs get their energy Chemosynthsis & photosynthesis

  6. The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Make a food chain out of the following: herbivore omnivore autotroph autotroph → herbivore → omnivore

  7. BACTERIA in soil WHICH ORGANISMS are responsible for removing nitrogen from and returning nitrogen to the atmosphere? The process of taking nitrogen from the atmosphere and changing it into a form plants can use is called ______________________ The process of converting soil nitrogen back into atmospheric form is called _______________________ NITROGEN FIXATION DENITRIFICATION

  8. biogeochemical cycles Matter moves through ecosystemsin ______________ food chains/webs biogeochemical cycles Which of these is a decomposer? ↑Fungi and SOME bacteria are decomposers

  9. omnivore Organism that eats both plants and meat Process in which water from plant leaves evaporates into the atmosphere transpiration

  10. Energy is passed in one-way direction through the biotic (living organisms) in an ecosystem. Matter cycles within and between biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. How does the way matter flows through an ecosystem differ from the way that energy flows? Which biogeochemical cycle does NOT involve a stage where the chemical enters the atmosphere? phosphorus

  11. denitrification Process in which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas and release it into the atmosphere Nutrient which is scare or cycles slowly that controls population growth Limiting nutrient

  12. Bacteria or fungi (break down organic material and absorb the nutrients) Give an example of a decomposer Which group of organisms is always found in the first trophic level of every food chain or web? Autotrophs or producers

  13. Why is only about 10% of the energy in an organism transferred in a food chain? Some is used by organism for life processes such as movement, transport, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and rest is lost as HEAT Give an example of an ABIOTIC factor Climate, temperature, precipitation, wind, soil type, water availability, sunlight

  14. Food, water, shelter, territory, light Give an example of a RESOURCE Another name for autotrophs producers

  15. Who is it? Heterotroph that obtains energy by eating only plants ___________________ Heterotroph that eats both plants and animals _____________________ Heterotroph that breaks down organic matter (Ex: Fungi & bacteria) __________________ Heterotroph that feed on dead plants and animal remains (EX:Crabs & worms) ___________________ Heterotroph that eats only meat ___________________ HERBIVORE OMNIVORE DECOMPOSER DETRITIVORE CARNIVORE

  16. Food webs are made up of many food chains How is a food web different from afood chain? Which of these is an herbivore? ↑Zebras are herbivores

  17. Cooperation is between organisms of same species; Symbiosis is between different species of organisms How is a symbiosis DIFFERENT from cooperation? Tell two ways water returns to the atmosphere in the water cycle. Evaporation and transpiration

  18. omnivore An organism that eats both meat and plants Name a limiting factor that could cause a population to decrease Competition- for food, shelter, territory Predation Disease/Parasitism Drought/climate change Human disturbance

  19. Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following EXCEPT: Photosynthesis respiration transpiration decomposition TRANSPIRATION moves water in the water cycle An organism that eats ONLY plants herbivore

  20. PUT THE FOLLOWING IN ORDER OF INCREASING COMPLEXITY ________________ ________________ ________________  ________________  ________________ ________________  ORGANISM ECOSYSTEM POPULATION COMMUNITY BIOSPHERE BIOME ORGANISM POPULATION COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEM BIOSPHERE BIOME

  21. The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Organism that captures and eats another predator

  22. Biotic factors are living; Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of an ecosystem What is the difference between a BIOTIC and ABIOTIC factor? Which organisms are responsible for nitrogen fixation in the nitrogen cycle? Bacteria in soil

  23. Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from their close association mutualism An “organism’s job” that includes what it eats, what eats it, where in the habitat it lives, how it acts, and when & how it reproduces? niche

  24. Photosynthesis ChemosynthesisRequires light Happens without light Gets energy from Gets energy from sunlight chemical bonds Tell one way chemosynthesis is different from photosynthsis. In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria living on the roots of plants turn nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into _________. ammonia

  25. Both: Ways organisms get energy Use energy to make carbohydrates Happen in autotrophs Tell one way chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are ALIKE. Energy moves through ecosystems in ________________. biogeochemical cycles food chains/webs food chains/webs

  26. population A group of individuals that belong to the same species that live together in an area Another name for heterotrophs consumers

  27. Which of the following is TRUE? Producers make up the first trophic level. Food chains are made by linking many food webs. All the energy is passed from one trophic level to the next Energy flows through the ecosystem in one direction from the sun to producers to consumers. TRUE FALSE: Food webs are made by linking food chains F Only about 10% is passed on to the next level. Most is used for life processes or lost as heat TRUE

  28. autotrophs Organisms that are able to take in energy from their environment and make their own carbohydrates are called ___________________________ Which of these is a carnivore? ↑Lions are carnivores

  29. Group of different populations that live together in an area community All the living things an ecosystem that an organism might interact with Biotic factors

  30. This diagram shows a ____________ Which of the organisms above is: a producer ? ______________ a consumer? _____________ How many trophic levels are shown? food chain BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 algae Zooplankton, fish, squid, shark 5

  31. Principle that states no two organisms can share the same niche at the same time in the same place Competitive exclusion principle Chemical substance organisms needto sustain life nutrient

  32. Which of the following is TRUE? Bacteria take carbon dioxide from the atomosphere and fix it in a form plants can use. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere naturally from respiration and volcanic activity . Human activities such as mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis by plants removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This is TRUE about nitrogen NOT CARBON DIOXIDE TRUE TRUE TRUE

  33. Detritivores EAT dead organisms;Decomposers break them down and absorb their nutrients How is a detritivore different from a decomposer? Name one of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about Carbon, nitrogen, Water (hydrogen & oxygen); phosphorus

  34. species Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring An organism that is captured and eaten by another prey

  35. Which of the following is TRUE? Burning fossil fuels is depleting our ozone layer Burning fossil fuels causes acid rain. Burning fossil fuels is the major cause of global warming. Conserving electricity, using renewable energy sources (like biofuels , solar, and wind), riding a bike, recycling waste, making products more energy efficient are all ways to help the global warming problem FALSE: Burning fossil fuels causes many environmental problems… but the ozone hole is caused by CFC’s TRUE TRUE TRUE

  36. Process in which some bacteria use energy stored in the chemical bonds of inorganic compounds to make carbohydrates in the absence of light chemosynthesis Series of steps in which organisms transfer energy through an ecosystem by eating and being eaten Food chain

  37. Which of the following is TRUE about the PHOSPHORUS CYCLE? Phosphate is released as rocks and sediments wear down Plants absorb phosphate from the soil or from water Phosphorus is abundant in the atmosphere. Phosphorus is important for building nucleic acids, ATP, and making cell membranes. TRUE TRUE FALSE, phosphorus does NOT cycle through the atomosphere. TRUE

  38. Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped commensalism The scientific study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment ecology

  39. food web This diagram is called a _______________ What do you think would happen to the snake population in this community if all the pine borer bugs were killed by a virus? A loss in pine borer bugs would decrease the populations of salamanders and golden crested kinglets (food for the snake) Loss of pine borers would eventually cause a decrease in the snake population too.

  40. Any necessity for life such as water, food, light, or space resource Relationship in which organismsattempt to use the same resource at the same time and place competition

  41. Look at the food web shown. What do you think will happen to the limpet population if all the mussels are wiped out in an oil spill? it will increase it will decrease it will stay the same; mussels don’t connect to limpets in this web Everything’s connected ! No mussels means crabs will eat more limpets; limpet population will decrease

  42. Which of the following is part of the HYDROLOGIC OR WATER CYCLE ? RUNOFF TRANSPIRATION EVAPORATION NITRIFICATION CONDENSATION NITROGEN FIXATION PRECIPITATION YES YES YES NO - part of NITROGEN CYCLE YES NO - part of NITROGEN CYCLE YES

  43. decomposers Organism such as bacteria or fungi that break down organic matter Each step in a food chain or web trophic level

  44. Making proteins (amino part of amino acids)Making nucleic acids (nitrogen bases) Part of ATP molecule (nitrogen base) Tell something living things use nitrogen for. How is movement of matter in an ecosystem different than the movement of energy? Energy flows one direction through food chains; matter recycles continuously in biogeochemical cycles

  45. community Groups of different species that live together in an area make up a __________________ Which of these is an omnivore? ↑Most humans are omnivores

  46. Carbon cycle Cycle which includes an underground reservoir in the form of fossil fuels Another name for the water cycle Hydrologic cycle

  47. Process in which green plants use energy from sunlight to produce carbohydrates photosynthesis Another name for a living thing organism

  48. Tell the group of organisms that all the cycles have in common which keeps matter cycling between living (organic) and nonliving (inorganic) parts of the ecosystem. decomposers

  49. Which of the following is TRUE? Organisms return nitrogen to the ground as ammonia when they go to the bathroom. Bacteria in soil change ammonia into nitrates and nitrites which plants use. We get our nitrogen by breathing. Nitrogen returns to the atmosphere when we burn fossil fuels. TRUE. TRUE FALSE: Although the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen , it is in a form we can’t use. We get our nitrogen from the food we eat. FALSE; Bacteria return nitrogen to the atmosphere through DENITRIFICATION. Burning fossil fuels returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

  50. Carbon, Hydrogen, nitrogen , oxygen Which 4 atoms make up over 95% of the body in most organisms? Which of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about recycles hydrogen and oxygen? Hydrologic or water cycle