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Chapter 9
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  1. Online Communication Chapter 9 Carving Alternative Spaces

  2. Online Communication In this chapter, you will learn: • A definition for discursive resistance; • The distinction between place and space; • The strategies of agonistic and utopian rhetoric; • A definition for hate sites; and • The advantages the Internet provides hate groups.

  3. discursive resistance: a process through which text, oral, nonverbal communication, and other forms of meaning-making are employed to image alternatives to dominant power structures Online Communication

  4. Online Communication Place vs. Space place: a location which formalizes, authorizes, and renders permanent the processes through which dominant interests maintain their influence over individuals or groups space: a tactical response to a place through individual or group rearticulation of its intended use

  5. Online Communication Intentional vs. Ad-hoc Communities intentional communities: planned organizations of individuals to accomplish some goal or maintain some lifestyle ad-hoc communities: communities of individuals brought together by an unforeseen event

  6. Online Communication Resisting through Agonistic Rhetoric agonistic rhetoric: discourse that produces or invokes ritualized conflict with an established order Example: A shadow page such as “K-Mart Sucks,” which attempts to invoke feelings of guilt and ultimately achieve redemption

  7. Online Communication Resisting through Utopian Rhetoric utopian rhetoric: discourse that imagines an ideal world that is distant from the real world in time and/or place in order to critique the contemporary social order Example: A parody site such as “,” which seeks to reveal the imperfections of the dominant order through ridicule

  8. Online Communication Utopian Rhetoric • Absurdity • Community • Social Order

  9. Online Communication social realism: the use of empirical data to examine computerization as it is actually practiced and experienced

  10. Online Communication Hate Sites A hate site “advocates violence against or unreasonable hostility toward those persons or organizations identified by their race, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender, or disability.” <>

  11. Online Communication Internet Advantages for Hate Groups • Community • Anonymity • Outreach • Commerce • Information Anti-Defamation League. (1999). Poisoning the web: Hatred online. <>.

  12. Online Communication A Brief Review • What is the function of discursive resistance? • What is the distinction between place and space? • How does agonistic rhetoric seek to persuade? • What three features are common in utopian rhetoric? • What five advantages do hate groups see to using the Internet?