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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Working for Reform 1820-1860

  2. Objectives • Describe the main characteristics of the Mormons • Understand what motivated the temperance reformers • Describe how educational opportunities changed in the early 1800’s • Recount what sparked the call for immediate abolition

  3. Mormon’s and their utopian venture • Joseph Smith – founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints • practiced plural marriage • Opposition led to violence • Killed in 1844 in Illinois


  4. Mormon’s and their utopian venture • Brigham Young – Mormon leader that led his flock to the Rocky Mountains • Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah • Survived because of their ability to filter the water for their irrigation system • “American Moses”

  5. Temperance Movement • Crusade against alcohol • Alcohol abuse was a serious problem facing the nation • 1830’s Americans drank an average of seven gallons of alcohol per person each year

  6. Social Problems With Alcohol Abuse • Criminal behavior • Family violence • Poverty

  7. Nationalities Who Had Concerns With The Temperance Movement • Germans • Irish • Alcohol was not viewed as a social evil • Beer gardens and pubs were places for socialization

  8. Reforming Education • 1840’s most schools were private • Families could not afford to send their kids to school • Basic curriculum: reading, writing, and arithmetic, history, and geography

  9. Public School Movement • Reformers felt that schools were inadequate to meet the needs of a growing nation • Nation needed public, tax-supported elementary schools to provide a free education to all children

  10. Reform Efforts in Massachusetts • 1837 – Horace Mann – first Secretary of Education in Massachusetts • United local districts into a state system • Raised teachers salaries • Persuaded the legislature to increase spending on local schools

  11. North and South Differ on Education North South Planters hired private tutors or established private schools Suspicious of northern educational reforms Northern reformers supported the abolition of slavery • Supported public education funded by taxes

  12. Reforming Mental Illnesses • Dorothea Dix • Saw how the mentally ill were being treated in Massachusetts • Mentally ill were placed in prisons or poorhouses without treatment

  13. Image of Dorothea Dix

  14. Reforming Mental Illnesses • Mentally ill needed rehabilitation – restore them to a useful and productive place in society • Massachusetts government responded by establishing institutions for the mentally ill

  15. Reforming Criminals • Reformers felt that lawbreakers could be reformed and returned to the community as productive citizens • Penitentiary – placed lawbreakers in an isolated and structured environment that would rid the country of crime

  16. Abolition Call for Action William Lloyd Garrison Goal (publish an anti-slavery newspaper) White New England Journalist launched the Liberator He felt that slavery was a sin and a crime because it contradicted the Bible and the Declaration of Independence

  17. Image of William Lloyd Garrison

  18. Abolition Call for Action • Frederick Douglas – fugitive slave from Maryland • Published an anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star • Publicly spoke out against slavery

  19. Image of Frederick Douglas

  20. Women’s Rights Movement • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were two noted abolitionists • Started the first women’s rights movement at Seneca Falls, New York • 300 women attended in 1848

  21. Women’s Rights Movement • Issues at the convention suffrage (voting rights) and property rights social prejudices limited women at work acceptance at colleges

  22. Chapter 9 - Test • On Monday, Oct. 17th

  23. Chapter 10 Expansion and Conflict

  24. Objectives • Describe how supporters of westward expansion defended their views • Explain why the Mexican government encouraged U.S. settlement in Texas • Summarize the events that led to the Texas Revolution • Analyze the U.S. defeat of Mexico in the Mexican War

  25. Manifest Destiny • Belief that the U.S. should expand it’s boundaries all the way to the Pacific Ocean

  26. Supporters and Opponent of Westward Expansion Supporters Opponents Western lands were already claimed by other nations Too large to govern • Urban crowding • Create new markets for industry

  27. Establishment of a colony in Texas • Stephen F. Austin started a colony for Catholics • Sold the land for 12 cents an acre along the Gulf Coast • Land in the U.S. was $1.25 an acre • By 1830 there were 7,000 U.S. settlers located to Texas

  28. Establishment of a colony in Texas • Mexican government opposed the colony because they were fearful that cotton farmers would migrate to the area • Bringing slavery • Feared a rebellion in Texas as well as a U.S. invasion

  29. Texas Revolution • Santa Anna was elected President of Mexico in 1833 • Dictator control over Mexico • Angered Mexican residents, including Texans • Fear of slavery spreading into the region

  30. Texas Revolution • Stephen F. Austin goes to Mexico City hoping to resolve Texas’ conflict with Mexico • Austin was jailed • Outraged U.S. settlers and Tejanos (tay-HAH-nohs) rose up in revolt known as the Texas Revolution

  31. Conflict at the Alamo • Missionary (established by Spain) fort that the Mexican government captured in San Antonio • December, 1835 • William Travis and Jim Bowie fought off attacks by Santa Anna’s army • March, 1835 Mexican troops overran the fort • All rebel fighters were killed

  32. The Beginning of the Alamo

  33. Sam Houston • Commander of the Texas army – 900 rebels • Surprised Santa Anna and his troops near the Jacinto River (Shouted “Remember the Alamo) • Killed 630 Mexican troops • Santa Anna defeated and removed from office

  34. Texas Annexation • Texas declared it’s independence from Mexico in 1836 (after the Texas Revolution) • Debated of Congress over annexation of Texas • Issue of concern was slavery • Texas was voted to the union in 1845