Review of Solutions • A mixture made of two or more pure substances • Also called a HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE • Particles slip in between each other in an even distribution through the entire mixture • Examples?
How are solutions formed? • Solutions are formed by dissolving one material in another material • What makes something dissolve? • Watch the following short movie clip about salt and water to get a better understanding • MOVIE IS FOUND AT THE FOLLOWING SITE: http://chemistry.beloit.edu/Water/moviepages/Comp3salt.htm • http://www.chem.iastate.edu/group/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/thermochem/solutionSalt.html
What did the movie show us? • Water particles will attract a salt particle more strongly than other salt particles can attract a salt particle • Water particle will pull the salt away from the other salt particles • Motion of water particles carries salt away • Allows more water in to dissolve more salt • Eventually the salt and water particles will mix evenly in the solution
Some Definitions Terminology to use when talking about solutions
Solute • The substance in a solution that dissolves in a solvent • Example – Salt dissolves in water and therefore is called a SOLUTE • Other examples?
Solvent • The substance in a solution that does the dissolving of a solute • Example – water dissolves the salt in a solution of salt water and therefore is called the SOLVENT • Other examples?
The Importance of Water • Water is known as the “Universal Solvent” • Called this because it can dissolve many things • Water in your blood carries food molecules, vitamins and mineral to your cells • Plants need water to deliver nutrients and remove wastes
Soluble • The ability of a substance to be dissolved in another substance • Examples: • Salt water – salt is soluble in water • Humid air – water vapour is soluble in air • Vinegar – acetic acid is soluble in water • Insoluble – the inability of a substance to be dissolved in another substance • Examples: • Oil and Water – oil in insoluble in water
Concentration • Tells you the amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solvent • Examples • 50 grams of salt dissolved in 100 mL of water • concentration = 50 g/100 mL • 6 grams of sugar dissolved in 10 mL of water • Concentration = 60 g/100 mL
Concentration Continued • To compare the concentrations of two solutions, you need to know the amount of solute in the same volume of solvent for each solution • For our above two examples, we needed to change the sugar into an amount /100 mL to compare the concentrations • The sugar water is more concentrated than is the salt water in the examples • 60 grams/100 mL vs. 50 grams/100 mL
Concentrated Solutions Large amount of solute in the solvent Example – Can of concentrated Orange Juice Dilute Solutions Small amount of solute in the solvent Example – Jug of Orange Juice made from the can of concentrated Orange Juice Almost there…Two More Definitions
Now, you will do a little bit of exploration of solutions and concentration on your own involving some grape drink and your text book • WON’T THAT BE A FUN EXPERIENCE?