What is Plagiarism and Citation? (And why you should care!)
Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, images, sounds, or the creative expression of others as your own. Definition:
If: • you have included the words and ideas of others in your work that you did not cite • you have had help you wouldn’t want your teacher to know about You have probably plagiarized!
Excuses Everyone does it! It’s okay if I don’t get caught! I was too busy to write that paper! (Job, big game, too much homework!) This assignment was BORING! My lecturers expect too much! My parents expect “A”s!
Why this is important for you as a student? • The consequences are not worth the risks! • It is only right to give credit to authors whose ideas you use • Citing makes it possible for your readers to locate your source • Cheating is unethical behavior Is your academic reputation valuable to you?
Possible Academic Consequences: • “0” on the assignment • Suspension or dismissal • Note on transcript • Loss of reputation among the academic community Is it worth the risk?
A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your essay / assignment came from another source (e.g. website, book or magazine). • It also gives your readers (and lecturer!) the information necessary to find that source again So…what is citation?
information about the author • the title of the work • the name and location of the company that published the source • the date the source was published • the page numbers of the material you are borrowing When you do citation in your work, you include…
Do I have to cite everything?
Facts that are widely known • Information considered “common knowledge” - do NOT have to be documented. Hooray for common knowledge! Nope!
The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 • The moon comes out at night • Ice forms at 0 degrees Celcius Examples of common knowledge
You are discussing your own experiences, observations, or reactions • Stating down the results of original research, from science experiments, etc. • You are using common knowledge No need to document when:
Malaysia has 11, 826 380 Facebook users. This is the 17th highest number of users in Malaysia • The Bible, Quotations from the Works of Mao Tse-tung, and Harry Potter are the top 3 best-selling books of all time What About These?
Malaysia has 11, 826 380 Facebook users. This is the 17th highest number of users in Malaysia • The Bible, Quotations from the Works of Mao Tse-tung, and Harry Potter are the top 3 best-selling books of all time http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics http://bookstove.com/book-talk/10-most-read-books-in-the-world What About These?
Quoting • Paraphrasing You can “borrow” from the works of others in your own work! Use these two strategies
Quotations are theexact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must be cited! Quoting
Let’s say you are required to write an essay about why social networking is bad for students. What are some of the reasons that you will use in your essay?
Ok now let’s pretend that one of your points will be about how social networking is unhealthy because it is bad manners when you do not appear in your family’s lives. How do you know? Did you do research? How do you prove this is true?
You agree with Rakesh and you want to use his information in your essay. Now, what do you do?
Short Quotations Sometimes we use Facebook to wish people Happy Birthday. This is not good because “being present with family and friends during rough conditions matters more than anything else (Narang, 2010).” This is why students should not log into Facebook too much.
Short Quotations Sometimes students use Facebook to wish people Happy Birthday. This is not good because “being present with family and friends during rough conditions matters more than anything else (Narang,2010).” This is why students should not log into Facebook too much. DON’T FORGET THE QUOTATION MARKS!
Like ‘40 words or more’ type of long? But what if the content that you want to ‘copy’ is really long?
Long Quotations • For 40 words or more, you need to put the words that you are ‘copying’ in a special paragraph andtake away the quotation marks. • Start the quotation on a new line, indented (pushed in) 1/2 inch from the left margin.
Two Authors • Wegener and Petty (1994) agree that “using smart phones will sometimes make people lazy”.
A Work by Three to Five Authors (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) After that, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.“ Kernis et al. (1993) also agreed that… Only for the first time
Exercise Now let’s use another reason why social networking is bad for students. Change the following statement into a quotation so that you can use it in your essay.
Students who get involved in activities on social media sites while studying result in reduction in their focus of attention. This causes reduction in their academic performance, and concentration to study well. Negative Effects of Social Networking Sites for Students BY Michael Truman http://performancing.com/negative-effects-of-social-networking-sites-for-students/ November 2, 2012
To make sure that what you’re citing is from a reliable source, make sure that the source has an author / authors and the date of publication
In Your Own Words… PARAPHRASING
What is Paraphrasing??? • Rewriting of text in your own words • Used to clarify meaning
Paraphrasing means: • rephrasing the words of an author • putting his/her thoughts in your own words. Same idea but you write the idea by using your own words
When you paraphrase, you change the structure of the source’s words with your own. • Like quotations, paraphrase must have the author’s last name and the year of the publication
So How Do We Do It? • Read the passage carefully • Decide the main ideas of the passage • Highlight important words or phrases • Put the main points in your own words PARAPHRASE ME!
What’s the big deal? Wrong! Paraphrasing original ideas without documenting your source, is plagiarism too! If I change a few words, I’m okay, right?
Now, pretend you’re writing an essay on the reasons why Malaysian graduates find it difficult to get a good job.
You came across this article on the internet and you want to use the point in your essay.
The employability of the average Malaysian graduate is becoming more dependent on a mastery of these soft skills. The growing number of unemployed, he says, is mainly because many do not have what is crucial in the job market especially with soft skills especially good communication skills, being presentable and having a reasonable grasp of general knowledge. By: Abdul Razak Ahmad May 4 2011 Original Article
Malaysian graduates are finding it difficult to get jobs because they do not possess the skills required for them to communicate well (Abdul Razak, 2011). Example
You’re writing an essay on the effects of stress. Read the following paragraph and paraphrase it for the essay. “Although the right amount of stress can be good, too much stress isn’t. A little stress can motivate you to study hard. But if stress lasts too long your body can’t cope with it any more. Some people overact to stress and even make small problems seem difficult to solve. They feel worried, upset and anxious all the time.” Daniel Grayson May 20 2010 http://www.english-online.at/health_medicine/stress/coping-with-stress.htm