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Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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  1. Human Anatomy and Physiology I • Lecture: M 6-9:30 Randall Visitor Center • Lab: W 6-9:30 Swatek Anatomy Center, Centennial Complex • Required Text: Marieb 9th edition • Dr. Trevor Lohman DPT • (949) 246-5357 • tlohman@llu.edu

  2. The Cell Ch. 3: The Functional Unit of Life

  3. The Cellular Basis of Life • The Smallest Living Unit • Cell Theory: • Generalized or Composite Cell • Plasma Membrane • Cytoplasm • Nucleus • Fig 3.2

  4. The Plasma Membrane: Structure • The Fluid Mosaic Model • Membrane Lipids • Phospholipids • Glycolipids • Cholesterol • Lipid Rafts • Fig 3.3

  5. Plasma Membrane: Structure • Membrane Proteins: • Integral Proteins • Peripheral Proteins • The Glycocalyx • Fig 3.3-3.4

  6. Cell Junctions • Tight Junctions: • Desmosomes: • Gap Junctions:

  7. The Plasma Membrane: Membrane Transport • Passive Processes • Osmosis • Aquaporins • Osmolarity • Hydrostatic vs. osmotic pressure • Tonicity (Iso, Hyper, Hypo) • Fig 3.9 • Diffusion • Simple diffusion • Facilitated diffusion • Carrier-Mediated facilitated diffusion • Channel-Mediated facilitated diffusion • Fig 3.6, 3.7, 3.8

  8. The Plasma Membrane: Membrane Transport • Active Transport • Primary Active Transport (3.10) • Sodium-potassium pump • Secondary Active Transport (3.11) • Symport system vs. antiportsystem • Vesicular Transport (3.12- 3.13) • Endocytosis, Transcytosis, Vesicular Trafficking Fig 3.12 • Phagocytosis • Pinocytosis • Receptor Mediated endocytosis • Exocytosis

  9. The Plasma Membrane: Generation of a Resting Membrane Potential • Membrane Potential and Resting Membrane Potential • Selective Diffusion Establishes Membrane Potential • Fig 3.15 • Step 1 • Step 2 • Step 3 • Active Transport Maintains Electrochemical Gradients

  10. The Plasma Membrane: Cell-Environment Interactions • Roles of Cell Adhesion Molecules • Molecular Velcro • The “arms” • Send SOS signals • The Mechanical Sensors • The Transmitters of intracellular signals

  11. The Plasma Membrane: Cell-Environment Interactions • Roles of Plasma Membrane Receptors • Contact Signaling • Chemical Signaling • Ligands • Catalytic receptor proteins • Chemically gated channel-link receptors • G-linked receptors • Second messengers • Cyclic AMP • Ionic calcium • Fig 3.16

  12. The Cytoplasm • The Cytosol • Organelles • Inclusions

  13. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Mitochondria • Ribosomes

  14. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum • Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

  15. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Golgi Apparatus • Trans face • Cis face

  16. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Peroxisomes • Neutralize free radicals • Lysosomes

  17. Cytoplasmic organelles • Cytoskeleton • Microfilaments • Intermediate filaments • Microtubules

  18. Cytoplasmic organelles • Centrosome • Centrioles • Fig 3.25

  19. The Nucleus • The Nucleus • Multinucleate • Anucleate • 3 distinguishable regions • The Nuclear Envelope • Nuclear Pores • Nucleoli • Chromatin • 30% DNA • 60% globular histone proteins • 10% RNA chains • Nucleosomes • Chromosomes

  20. Cell Cycle: Interphase/M-phase • Interphase (Metabolic/Growth Phase) • Subphases • G1 (gap 1 subphase)/(G0 phase) • S Phase • G2 (gap 2 subphase) • DNA Replication • Enzymatic Unwinding • Replication bubble forms • RNA Primer Formation • DNA Polymerase

  21. Cell Division • Cell Division • M (mitotic) phase • Mitosis • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis

  22. Mitosis • Prophase • Early Prophase • Chromatin condenses, forms chromosomes • Centrosome separation, Mitotic spindle forms • Late Prophase • Nuclear envelope dissolves • Spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores at each centromere • Polar microtubules slide past each other forcing the poles apart • Fig 3.33

  23. Mitosis • Metaphase • Centromeres are at opposite poles of the cell • Chromosomes align along the equator of the spindle or metaphase plate • Enzymatic separation of chromatids begins

  24. Anaphase • Shortest Mitotic Phase • Begins with simultaneous chromatid separation • Motor proteins within the kinetochores pull chromosomes toward the poles • Polar microtubules continue to expand, pushing the poles further apart

  25. Telophase • Begins when chromosomal movement stops • Resembles prophase in reverse • Chromosomes unravel and revert to chromatin • New nuclear envelopes form and nucleoli reform • Mitotic spindle disappears • Mitosis ends, and cell is now binucleate

  26. Cytokinesis • Actin ring forms and constricts until cell is pinched in two • Begins during late Anaphase • Continues beyond Telophase

  27. Protein synthesis • Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid • DNA is the master blueprint • Composed of 4 nucleotide bases A, T, C, G • Triplets code for individual amino acids • Exons and introns • DNA is useless without RNA

  28. Protein Synthesis • RNA • Messenger RNA (mRNA) • The “transcript” from which protein synthesis is performed • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) • Building block of ribosomes • Transfer RNA (tRNA) • Transport cytoplasmic amino acids to ribosomes

  29. Protein Synthesis • Transcription • Initiation • RNA Polymerase • Promoter • Helix pulled apart • Elongation • Helix unwound and rewound and as mRNA formed • Termination • Termination signal • mRNA separation

  30. Protein Synthesis • Translation • Nucleic acid language translated to amino acid language • Codons (64 possible) • Translation Events • Initiation • Ribosomal subunit binds to initiating tRNA which scans for start codon • Elongation • Codon recognition • Peptide bond formation • Translocation • Termination • Stop codon reached • Polypeptide chain released

  31. Protein Synthesis • Fig 3.4 • Fig 3.39

  32. Ch 3: The Cell • Study Guide