1914-1920 Chapter 14 World War I and Its Aftermath
WWI An Overview • 1914-1918 • 32 Nations • 30 Million Dead • $350 Billion Cost • First “Total War”
I. The United States Enters WWI A. Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy: MORAL DIPLOMACY 1. Democracy a. Promotes stability & prosperity b. Historically, democracies tend to not engage in war with e/o 2. US to lead by MORAL example
B. Mexican Revolution 1911 1. Diaz the Dictator – supported US, but….. a. land/wealth in hands of few b. majority are poor and landless c. This situation leads to REVOLUTION! 2. Madero a. supported democracy – but failed to implement b. overthrown and murdered by Huerta 3. Gen. Huerta a. brutal leader – opposed by US b. US armed/supported his opponents Diaz Huerta
4. Tampico Incident: US sailors arrested briefly in Mex. US demands apology, Mex. Refuses – opportunity to overthrow Huerta! – send US Marines – seize port of Vera Cruz • - Mexicans outraged! • 5. Carranza became Mexico’s President • 6. Pancho Villa • a. leader of Mex. Guerilla grp • b. raided Columbus, NM to draw US intervention against Carranza • c. US sent 6000 US troops under Pershing to chase him – didn’t get him
7. Wilson’s “Moral Imperialism” a. Effect on US/Latin American relations: damaged! Seen as noimprovement over TR’s “Big Stick” b. Wilson sent US Marines to Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic. Why? To preserve order & set up gov’t that he hoped would be more stable & democratic
C. Outbreak of WWI – Causes of WWI 1. Entangling Alliances: an effort to maintain balance of power – formed mutual defense agreements where countries agree to aid their allies militarily in a crisis • a. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy • b. Triple Entente: France, Britain, Russia
Entangling Alliances This cartoon - 'A Chain of Friendship' - appeared in the American newspaper the Brooklyn Eagle in July 1914. The caption read: “If Austria attacks Serbia, Russia will fall upon Austria, Germany upon Russia, and France and England upon Germany.”
2. Militarism: glorify the military. Use of force to settle int’l problems • a. Naval Race: Germany vs. Britain • - Germans begin to build navy – seen as threat to Brit. dominance • - tensions btwn Brits/Germs grow • - leads to race to build warships • b. Conscription System: military draft producing huge standing armies (except GB) • c. Stockpiling new weapons and ammunition
3. Nationalism: Culture and interests of homeland above other countries. a. Other nations viewed as competitors b. Willing to go to war to expand nation c. Self-determination: belief that nations should have their own country and gov’t - Pan-German movement: unite German speaking nations - Pan-Slavic movement: unite Slavicspeaking nations
4. Imperialism: actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation a. competition to develop vast empires caused tension and conflict b. Europeans competed for - territory - raw materials - new markets - land close to home c. Imperialist actions - Bosniaannexed by Austria-Hungary - France goal to reclaim Alcace-Lorraine Causes of WWI
D. The Spark that ignites WWI June 14, 1914 The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir to? Austria-Hungary throne - by whom? Gabriel Principe (Bosnian Serb, a member of Black Hand – a group of Bosnians who wanted freedom from Serbia)
GavriloPrincip – the assassin The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family
E. The Guns of August 1. July 28,1914 – Austria-H declares war on Serbia Russia begins mobilizing 2. Aug. 1,1914 – Germany declares war on Russia France begins mobilizing 3. Aug. 3,1914 – Germany declares war on France 4. Aug 4,1914 – Germany invades Belgium - Britain declares war on Germany (rape of Belgium) 5. Aug 6, 1914 – Austria-H declares war on Russia 6. Aug 12, 1914 – France and Britain declare war on Austria-H Whew!...
F. The War 1. Who’s fightin’ who? a. Central Powers = Austria-Hungary + Germany + Ottoman Empire + Bulgaria • b. Allies = France + Russia + Britain + Italy + others
2. The plans • a. Germany’s Plan (Schlieffen Plan) : knock out • France 1st – then take on the Russians * problem: have to go through neutral Belgium to get to France - international outrage b. Russia invades Germany. Germany fighting a 2 front war. c. German advance west stopped with Battle of theMarne. d. Germans successful in east – Russia suffers
“Rape of Belgium”
America declares official neutrality – yes but… 1. Population divided - German immigrants (8 m) tended to support Central powers - Irish immigrants also supported Central powers. Why? Irish resented centuries of British Rule - most Americans, however, support Allies. Why? 1) British heritage 2) English language 3) British political ideals 4) historic links w/ France (Am. Revolution)
2. Govt, Military very Pro-British 3. Biz favored Allies a. already strong ties with Allied countries b. banks invest in Allied victory – made loans to Allies (up to $2B in 1917). - so…if Allies won, $ would be paid back) c. in some pro-German regions in US - lent $27M to Central Powers, but loans had to go through Sec. of Treasury – and he was pro- British
4. Role of Propaganda: information designed to influence opinion a. used by both Allies & Central Powers b. American propaganda urged Americans to: - buy war bonds - support Allies c. Brits = most skilled propaganda - painted Germans as aggressors in war, as vicious and bloodthirsty - cut transatlantic telegraph cable from Europe to US - limited news to mainly British reports
Terms to Know Huns – Germans Yanks – Americans Thrift Stamps – stamps bought for 25 cents each, when a card of 8 was filled, the card could be traded in for $5.00 in 1923 (but it only cost $4.00) Liberty Bonds – sold to raise money for the war effort (like a loan to the government) Munitions – weapons and ammunition
H. Moving toward war – 1. British Naval Blockade of Germany a. To keep it from obtaining supplies b. Mined North sea c. Expanded definition of contraband 2. Germans hope to starve Brits and France into surrendering – get around blockade with…. a. U-boats – plan to sink w/o warningany ship in water around Britain – (what about the int’l treaty that stated that military vessels must reveal their intentions to merchant ships and make provisions for safety of the targeted ship’s crew and passengers before sinking it? - Germans claim that many merchant ships were actually warships in disguise. Were they right?
b. The Lusitania May 7, 1915 - kills 1200 passengers, 128 of them Americans - US complains, but does NOT declare war - insists that German gov’t safeguard lives of noncombatants in war zones - Germany publishes warning
The Lusitania • Sunk May 7, 1915 • Response: “It is a deed for which a Hun would blush, a Turk be ashamed, and a Barbary pirate apologize… The laws of nature and the law of God have been alike trampled upon. The torpedo which sank the Lusitania also sank Germany in the opinion of mankind
c. Sussex Pledge – Germans promise to sink no more merchant ships w/o warning - scenario behind the pledge: U-boat sinks French passenger ship Sussex, injuring several Americans. Wilson threatens war if Germany does not abandon its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare! • 1916 – Wilson reelected as “peace” candidate.
I. US declares War – why? (2 major causes of US entry into WWI) 1. Zimmerman Telegram Jan. 1917 a. Brit gov’t intercepts message from German ambassador Zimmerman to the Mexican gov’t b. Telegram asks Mexico to attack the US if war broke out between the US and Germany c. in exchange, Mexico would regain its “lost territory” in TX, AZ, NM after the war. d. Americans outraged!
2. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Feb 1917 a. Feb-March 1917 – Germany sinks 6 US merchant ships w/o warning b. April 1917 – Wilson asks Congress for Declarationof War 3. April 6, 1917 US declaration of War against Germany Senate vote: 82 to 6
II. The Home Front • A. Building up the Military • 1.Selective Service (conscription) • a. Progressives against conscription • b. Selective Service - ~ 2.8 M drafted • 1) men 21-30 register for draft • 2) LOTTERY randomly determined order men called • 3) Local draft boards run systems – • civilian