Chapter 21 THE HIGH TIDE OF IMPERIALISM
The Spread of Colonial Rule • Q: What were the causes of the new imperialism of the nineteenth century, and how did it differ from European expansion in earlier periods?
Motives for Colonialism • Economic • Raw materials • Oil, tin, rubber • New markets • Needed to absorb manufactured goods
Imperialism • Process of western economic expansion in Asia and Africa • efforts of western capitalist states to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative avenues for investment
Voices of Imperialism • John A Hobson, Imperialism: A Study in 1902, • modern imperialism was a direct consequence of the modern industrial economy • wealth, national status, and political power went hand in hand with possession of a colonial empire.
Voices of Imperialism • French politician, Jules Ferry, 1885 • expressed the relationship between colonialism and national survival: • a policy of containment or abstinence would set France on the broad road to decadence and initiate its decline into a 3rd or 4th rate power. • theory of Social Darwinism • in the struggle between nations only the fit will survive.
Voices of Imperialism • British professor of Math, Karl Pearson • “the path of progress is strewn with the wrecks of nation; traces are everywhere to be seen of the [slaughtered remains] of inferior races….yet these dead people are, in very truth, the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.”
Voices of Imperialism • Moral Arguments • Promote Christianity • Build a better world. • Cecil Rhodes, • purpose was to extend the British empire on “which the sun never set.”
Colonial Rivalry • Colonial rivalry • scramble to acquire new territories in Asia and Africa, primary motive, economic • Africa • British engaged in a struggle with rivals to protect their interests in the Suez canal and Red Sea • Southeast Asia • US seized the Philippines from Spain and to keep them from the Japanese • Indochina • The French took over in competition with Germany, Japan or the US would usurp that territory
Scramble Complete • By 1900 all societies of Africa and Asia were under full colonial rule or on the verge of collapse as was the case with China and the Ottoman empire. • Exceptions: • Japan, East Asia, Thailand, Afghanistan, Persia, Ethiopia in East Africa.
The Colonial System • Q: What types of administrative systems d the various colonial powers establish in their colonies, and how did these systems reflect the general philosophy of colonialism?
Indirect Rule • Cooperating with local elites • Purchased loyalty • Economic rewards for cooperation • Confirming them in positions of authority and status in an new colonial setting. • In parts of Africa and Indian subcontinent, • the Malay peninsula • Countries that were most effective in resisting included those who had along tradition of national cohesion and independence: • Burma, Vietnam, African Muslim states such as Nigeria and Morocco.
Direct Rule • Directly imposed or replaced indigenous government, institutions • Re-organized social, political, economic and often, gender relationships • Response to resistance efforts • Policies designed to eradicate source of resistance • Destroy sources of tradition
Philosophy of Colonialism • “Might makes it right” • pseudoscientific validation from the concept of Social Darwinism • “White mans burden” • Moral justification: • bringing the benefits of western democracy, capitalism, and Christianity to the tradition-ridden societies of Africa and Asia, • (civilizing mission)
Association • The French adopted the terms association & assimilation: • Association: • implied collaboration with the local elites while leaving local traditions alone
Assimilation • Assimilation • Implies an effort to transform colonial societies in the western image • French approached colonization both ways
India Under the British Raj • Q: What were some of the major consequences of British rule in India, and how did they affect the Indian peoples?
British India, 1800 • Empire of the Muhgals colonized • British sought to consolidate their control over Indian and expand into the interior • Direct Rule • East India company • Later by the British crown • Indirect Rule • through their local Maharajas and rajas.
company’s resident dominating a procession in Tanjore in 1825, while the Indian ruler, Sarabhoji, follows like an obedient shadow The East Indian Co. Resident and His Puppet © Art Media, Victoria and Albert Museum, London/HIP/The Image Works
Colonial ReformsBenefits • British government brought order and stability to a society rent by civil war and • Benefits • Increase in access to education • Girls had some increase access – wifely duties, • Sati outlawed of Sati • widows allowed to remarry legally • new infrastructure of railroads and telegraph, postal service, health and sanitation improved.
Costs of Colonialism • High price for stability • Economic costs: hardship to the majority of millions of people • Introduction of British textiles put thousands of Bengali women out of work and severely damaged the local textile industry
Costs of Colonialism • British introduced the Zamindar system: • To facilitate the collection of agricultural taxes and create a new landed gentry who could become the conservative foundation of British rule. • local gentry increased the tax burden on peasants and forced many to become tenants or lose their land entirely. • Rebellion led to new legislation protecting farmers from eviction and unreasonable rent increases as a concession
India Under British Rule, 1805–1931 This map shows the different forms of rule that the British applied in India under their control.
The Cost of Colonialism • Economic costs • Limited industrialization, • remiss in bringing the benefits of modern science and technology • Psychological impact: • British arrogance, contempt and discrimination • cut deeply into the pride of many Indians, especially those of high caste
Colonial regimes in SE Asia • Q: Which western countries were most active in seeking colonial possessions in Southeast Asia, and what were their motives in doing so?
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia • 1800 only two societies were under colonial rule • Spanish Philippines • Dutch East Indies • 1900 the entire area colonized by the west
The Effects of Dutch Colonialism in Java Dutch administration buildings in Batavia © William J. Duiker
Singapore and Malaya • “Opportunity in the Orient” • 1819 Stamford Raffles founded British colony in Singapore • Strategic shipping port in the region
Government Hill in Singapore Strait of Malacca, an important commercial seaport in Asia. © British Library/HIP/Art Resource, NY
Colonial Southeast Asia British Burma Malacca French Vietnam Laos Cambodia American Philippines
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Administration and Education • Slow to adopt democratic institutions • Albert Sarraut advised patience in in awaiting the full benefits colonial policy • I will treat you like my younger brothers, but do not forget that I am the older brother. I will slowly give you the dignity of humanity • Slow to adopt educational reforms • French officials in Vietnam voiced opposition to expanding education • Educating the natives meant not “one coolie less but one rebel more
Cultural Influences—East and West © Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Economic Development • Exploitation of raw materials • Burma: Teakwood • Malaya: Rubber and Tin • East Indies: spices, tea, coffee, palm oil • Philippines: sugar, copra (coconut flesh) • Limited industrialization • Industrialization to meet needs of European elite and local elites • Most industrial and commercial establishments, banking, & trade, owned and managed by Europeans
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Colonialism and the Countryside • Majority of people agrarian • Subsistence agriculture • Plantation agriculture • European Rubber & Tea Plantations • Workers “Shanghaied” • English term , practice of recruiting laborers, often from the docks and streets of Shanghai: use of force, drugs or alcohol
The Production of Rubber European Cash Crop of Asia Slave wages. © William J. Duiker
The Production of Rubber .latex sheets © William J. Duiker
Empire Building in Africa • Q: What factors were behind the “Scramble for Africa” and what impact did it have on the continent?
18thC Africa • 18th C interest limited to the coast and the slave trade • Indirect rule or influence through African rulers and merchant intermediaries • Factors that limited expansion • Disease • malaria • Political instability • Lack of transportation
Domestic Slaves, Zanzibar, 1890 Slave trade in decline: growing outrage among humanitarians in European countries over human trafficking & increase in price coupled with decrease in demand © Bojan Brecelj/CORBIS
Decline of Slave Trade • Dutch ceased the trafficking by1795, Danes in 1803, • Britain & America declared it illegal in 1808 • By 1815 only Portugal and Spain were legally active. • By the 1880s the institution was abolished in all major countries in the world. • It was finally abolished in America by 1863 and in Cuba and brazil 17 years later
Empire Building in AfricaInformal Empire • The Growing European Presence in • West Africa • Emergence of European educated elite class of Africans who were then employed by Europeans • Christianizing • African social splits • Tensions with African government • British: Gold Coast, Sierra Leone • America: Liberia • French: Senegal River near Cape Verde • Peanut plantations
Imperialist Shadow over the Nile • Historical interest in building a canal between the Mediterranean and Red Sea • Turks, 16th C • King Louis of France, 17th C • Napolean,1798 toppled the Mamluk regime in Cairo • British restored the Mamluk Muhammad Ali, Ottoman officer seized control for 30 years • Ferdinand de Lesseps,1854, signed a contract to have the canal completed by 1869
The Suez Canal • French Egypt • Project indebted the government • Dependent on foreign aid • Revolt against foreign influence led Britain to step in and protect its investments (1875 shares) • Established an informal protectorate until WWI
The Opening of the Suez Canal, 1869 Continues to be Egypt’s greatest revenue producer © Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY
British Control of Egypt & Sudan • Great Britain’s interest in region strategic • Suez Canal shortened distance between Europe & Asia • Designed by a French engineer & built by an international company • Opened in 1869 • Far flung empire & trading network, Britain had the greatest interest in its control • 1875 Britain acquired control when the ruler of Egypt sold his shares in the company to British government to avoid bankruptcy • 1882 British advisors supervised all important Egyptian government offices & became real rulers of the country • Technically or nominally remained a province of the Ottoman Empire
Suez Canal, 1869 • Canal opened • Europeans directly controlled only a scattering of outposts • African Coast • Algeria • North Africa • Southern Tip of Africa
Sudan • Egypt claimed authority over Sudan • Sudan controlled the water supply of the Nile River • Sudanese resented Egyptian control • Revolted in 1883 under the Mahdi (Rightly Guided One) the leader of the Nationalist movement • 1896 – 1898 General Sir Herbert Kitchener undertook recon quest of Sudan
French Conquest & Settlement of Northwest Africa • 1830 – 1869 France conquered Algeria • Used as a base for further advances into the Sahara • 1881 Made Tunisia a protectorate (in spite of Italy’s claim) • Expanded west into Morocco
French Empire • Encouraged re-settlement, unlike Britain in Egypt • Algeria – French dispossessed people of best land • 1911 population 5.6 million, 752,000 were European • Tunisia 130,000 Europeans • Friction between wealthy white minority & Arab Majority • Muslims treated like a conquered people
White Privilege • French settlers or Colons had representation in the legislature in metropolitan France • Muslims had no representation • The Arab must accept the fate of the conquered, he must either become assimilated to our civilization or disappear. European civilization can have no sympathy for the life of a savage