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  2. The Dynamics of people and organizations A primary goal of management education is to develop students into managers who can think ahead, exercise good judgment, make ethical decisions, and take into consideration the implications of their proposed actions – Jane Schmidt-Wilk

  3. Premises • Organizations are complex systems. • Need to understand how the system operates esp. in a sociotechnical system – humanity and technology. • Human behavior in organizations is sometimes unpredictable • Behaviors may come from deep-seated needs, lifetime experiences and personal value systems • Human behavior in a organization can be partially understood • Applying the frameworks of behavioral science, management and other disciplines. • There are no perfect solutions to organizational problems • Increase the understanding and skills – work relationships can substantially upgraded • We do not have the luxury of not working with or relate to other people. • Learn human behavior. • Explore how to improve he interpersonal skills • Begin to mange ones relationships with others at work.

  4. Understanding human behavior • Definition • OB • systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people – as individuals and as groups – act within organizations. • Strive to identify ways in which people can act more efficiently • A large number of research studies and conceptual developments constantly adds up to its knowledge base. • An applied science • Provides useful set of tools at many levels of analysis from individual, interpersonal relations, intergroup,and whole system

  5. Goals of OB • Describe • how people behave under a variety of conditions. • Understand • Why people behave behave as they do. • Probe for underlying explanations • Predict • Predict future employee behavior (tardiness, productive & unproductive etc.) • Provide preventive actions • Control • At least partially and develop some human activity at work. Managers need to remember that organizational behavior is a tool for human benefit

  6. Key forces – complex set of forces affects the nature of organizations

  7. Key Forces • People • Make up the internal social system of an organization • Melting pot of diversity – talents, background and perspectives to their jobs • Managers need to be tuned in to these diverse patterns and trends. • Changes in the labor force • Decline in work ethic and rise in emphasis on leisure, self expression, fulfillment and personal growth • Decreased automatic acceptance of authority and increase in the desire for participation, autonomy and control. • Skills become obsolete due to rapid technological advances – retrain or be displaced • Security needs are prime concern and loyalty diminishes because of downsizing and outsourcing • Absence of meaningful salary growth has placed renewed emphasis on money as a motivator • Companies address diversity by becoming compassionate and caring, building pride without de-valuing others, empowering some without exploiting, demonstrating openness, confidence, authentic compassion and vulnerability.

  8. Structure • Defines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. • Effective coordination of work • Create complex problems of cooperation, negotiation and decision making • Technology • Provides he resources with which people work and affects the tasks they perform • Benefit of technology – does more and better work however it restricts people in various ways • OB’s challenge is to maintain the delicate balance between technical and social systems. • Environment • Internal or external • Organizations are part of a larger system and factors influence them like: • Citizens expect organizations to be socially responsible • New products and competition for customers come from around the globe (globalization) • The direct impact of unions diminishes • Dramatic pace of change in society. • The external environment influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions, and provides competitions for resources and power.

  9. Positive Characteristics of OB • Interdisciplinary in nature – integrates behavioral sciences, social sciences and other disciplines • Emerging knowledge, theories, models and conceptual frameworks. • Increasing acceptance of theory and research by practicing managers. • Willingness of managers to explore new ideas • More receptive to new models • Support related research • Hungrily experiment with new ideas

  10. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology Sociology Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science

  11. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field

  12. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)

  13. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)

  14. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)

  15. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)

  16. Fundamental Concepts of OB • Nature of people • Individual differences • Nature vs.nurture • Perception • The unique way in which each person sees, organizes and interprets things. • Selective perception cause misinterpretation • A whole person • We employ the whole person not just their brains or skills • Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population • Motivated behavior • A path towards increased need fulfillment is a better approach • Desire for involvement • Hunger for a change to chare what they know and to learn from the experience. • Organizations need to provide opportunities for meaningful involvement – employee empowerment • Value of the person • Worth before the word • meal before the message • they want to be treated differently from other factors of production

  17. Nature of organization • Social systems • or social structure in general refer to entities or groups in definite relation to each other, to relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationship within social systems, or to social institutions and norms becoming embedded into social systems in such a way that they shape the behavior of actors within those social systems. Social systems can be said to be the patterns of behavior of a group of people possessing similar characteristics due to their existence in same society. • Formal and informal social systems • The idea of a social system provides a framework for analyzing organizational behavior issues. It helps make OB problems understandable and manageable • Mutual interest • Symbiotic relationship between organizations and people • Provides a superordinate goal – one that can attained only through the integral effort of individuals and their employers. • Ethics • Treatment of employees in an ethical fashion • Establish code of ethics, publicized statements of wthical values, provide ethics trainings, reward employees for notable ethical behaviors, set up internal procedure to handle misconduct.

  18. Models of Organizational Behavior

  19. Model of OB

  20. Social Systems and Organizational Culture A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have boundaries...it exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it.

  21. Culture is the conventional behavior of an organization that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices. It influences human behavior, even though it seldom enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations.

  22. HOW AN ORGANIZATION's CULTURE CAN BE KNOWN ? Organization culture can be a set of key values , assumptions,understandings and norms that is shared by members of anorganization.Organization values are fundamental beliefs that an organizationconsiders to be important , that are relatively stable over time,and they have an impact on employees behaviors and attitudes.Organization Norms are shared standards that define what behaviors are acceptable and desirable within organization.Shared assumptions are about how things are donein an organization.Understandings are coping with internal / external problemsuniformly.

  23. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION CULTURELEVEL 1---VISIBLE, that can be seen at the surface level-dress codes-office layout [ open office]-symbols-slogans-ceremonies[ monthly / annual awards/long service/birthdays etc.etc

  24. LEVEL 2- INVISIBLE , that can be cannot be seen but only felt.-stories about people performance-symbols [ flag, trademark, logos, etc]-corporate mission statements-recruitment/selection [ methods used]-fairness in treatment-social equality-risk taking in business deals-formality in approach-discipline-autonomy for departments-responsiveness to communication -empowerment of staff. http://www.citehr.com/8284-organization-development-vs-organization-behaviour.html#ixzz2WgoCzFf7

  25. Approaches to OB Human Resources (Supportive) – Employee growth and development are encouraged and supported. Contingency – Different managerial behaviors are required by different environments for effectiveness. Results-oriented – outcomes of organizational behavior programs are assessed in terms of their efficiency. Systems – all parts of an organization interact in a complex relationship.

  26. Limitations of OB • People who lack system understanding and become superficially infatuated with OB may develop Behavioral bias – narrow viewpoint that emphasized satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of the organization in relation to all its publics. • The law of diminishing return – • he tendency for a continuing application of effort or skill toward a particular project or goal to decline in effectiveness after a certain level of result has been achieved. • Overemphasis on as valid organizational behavior practice may produce negative results • At some point increase of a desirable practice produce declining returns, eventually negative returns

  27. Unethical manipulation of people • Knowledge and techniques can be used to manipulate people unethically • People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways. • The philosophy of OB is supportive and oriented toward human resources. Seeks to improve human environment and help people grow toward their potential. • Ethical leadership principles such as: social responsibility, open communication, cost-benefit analysis.

  28. Continuing Challenges • Seeking Quick Fixes • Are we tempted when pressured to seed rapid solutions? • Varying Environments • Can the ideas that have been developed and tested endure with equal success under new conditions? • Definition Confusion • Considered as relatively new discipline, can OB in clearly define its field of student and application?

  29. The organization is above all social. It is people.”Peter Drucker

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