Vocabulary • Crusades- A series of “Holy Wars” that were undertaken to recapture the Holy Land.
Warm up • Why was it called “The Black Death”?
How did it begin? • Began in 1093 when the Byzantine Emperor wrote a letter read by Pope Urban II • The Pope then called for a “Holy War” against the Muslim Turks • How long did it last? • Over 200 Years
Who fought the Crusades? • Knights • Younger sons who would not inherit property • What were Crusaders promised? • If they died on the Crusade they were assured a place in heaven • What was their attire? • Tunics with red crosses on their chest
First Crusade • Goal: To take back the Holy Land and Jerusalem • 1096-1099 • Result: Captured Jerusalem on July 15 1099 and a 650 mile stretch of land from Edessa (north) to Jerusalem (south)
Second Crusade • Goal: Retake Edessa • 1145-1187 • Edessa was recaptured by the Muslim Turks in 1144 • Result: Crusaders were defeated and shocked to find that Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslim leader Saladin
Third Crusade • Goal: Recapture Jerusalem • 1189-1192 • Leader of Crusaders: King Richard The Lion Hearted of England • Result: King Richard was unable to recapture Jerusalem but he and Saladin agree to a truce • Muslims keep Jerusalem but Christians are free to visit the cities holy places
Fourth Crusade • Goal: Retake Jerusalem • 1202-1204 • Result: Knights did not reach Holy Land and looted Constantinople instead
Spanish Crusade • 1100-1492 • Reconquista • Effort to drive Muslims out of Spain • The leaders of Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella) instituted a tribunal held by the Church called The Inquisition to eliminate Heresy • Jewish and Muslim converts were questioned & tortured to see if they held beliefs different from that of the Church
Closing • Are there any similarities between the Crusades and Islamic Jihad??