Download
cch federal taxation comprehensive topics chapter 19 partnerships formation and operation n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics Chapter 19 Partnerships— Formation and Operation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics Chapter 19 Partnerships— Formation and Operation

CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics Chapter 19 Partnerships— Formation and Operation

320 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics Chapter 19 Partnerships— Formation and Operation

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. CCH Federal TaxationComprehensive TopicsChapter 19Partnerships—Formation and Operation ©2005, CCH INCORPORATED 4025 W. Peterson Ave. Chicago, IL 60646-6085 800 248 3248 http://tax.cchgroup.com

  2. Chapter 19 Exhibits 1. Partnerships—Overview 2. Partnerships—Types of Partnerships 3. Partnerships—Tax Years 4. Partnerships—Accounting Methods 5. Partnerships—Tax Formula 6. Code Section 702(a)(8) Income or Loss 7. Separately Stated Items 8. Formation of Partnerships—Partner Perspective 9. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 10. Contribution of Part Property/Part Services 11. Contribution of Part Property/Part Services—Example 12. Disguised Sales—General Rules 13. Disguised Sales—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit Contents A CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  3. Chapter 19 Exhibits 14. Contribution of Encumbered Property 15. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example 16. Contribution of “Know-How” 17. Contribution of “Know-How”—Example 18. Inside Basis Computations 19. Outside Basis Computations 20. Outside Basis Computations—Example 21. Code Section 465 At-Risk Rules 22. Code Section 469 Passive Activity Loss (PAL) Rules 23. At-Risk and Passive Activity Loss Rules—Example 24. Partners Providing Infrequent, Nonessential Services to Partnerships for Compensation 25. Partners Providing Ongoing, Integral Services to Partnerships for Compensation Chapter 19, Exhibit Contents B CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  4. Partnerships—Overview Definition Of Partnership. An unincorporated association with two or more persons who associate for a profit motive. For income tax purposes, partnerships are generally treated as pass-through entities, i.e., the partnership pays no taxes, and partnership income (loss) and separately stated items are allocated to each partner according to the partnership’s profit sharing agreement. The partners receive separate K-1 schedules from the partnership. Each K-1 reports each partner’s share of the partnership net profit and separately reported income and expense items. Partners report these items on their own 1040 tax returns, even if none of the items have been distributed to them. Chapter 19, Exhibit 1 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  5. Partnerships—Types of Partnerships General Partnership [GP]. A GP has one or more general partners who is personally liable for partnership debts; a general partner can be bankrupted by a malpractice judgment brought against the partnership, even though the partner was not personally involved in the malpractice. Limited Liability Partnership [LLP]. An LLP is similar to a general partnership, except that an LLP partner is not liable for any malpractice committed by the other LLP partners. Limited Partnership [LP]. An LP is comprised of at least one general partner and often many limited partners. Limited partners may not participate in the management of the LP, and their risks of loss are restricted to their equity investments in the LP. Chapter 19, Exhibit 2a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  6. Partnerships—Types of Partnerships Limited Liability Company [LLC].An LLC is a state-registered association generally taxed as a partnership if it “checks the box.” LLC members, like corporate shareholders are not personally liable. Unlike limited partners, LLC members may participate in management without risking personal liability. However, guaranteed payments are subject to self-employment tax, along with the members’ share of ordinary income or loss from the LLC. Chapter 19, Exhibit 2b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  7. Partnerships—Tax Years The following rules govern tax years of partnerships: Majority Interest Taxable Year. Partnerships are generally required to elect the same taxable year as their partners who represent a majority interest on the first day of the partnership’s first tax year. Code Sec. 706(b). Five Percenters’ Common Tax Year. If there is no majority interest taxable year, the partnership must use the same year as that of the principal partners, i.e., those owning five percent or more interest in either profits or capital. Chapter 19, Exhibit 3a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  8. Partnerships—Tax Years Calendar Tax Year. If there is no majority interest tax year and the principal partners do not have the same taxable year, the partnership generally must use the calendar year. There are two exceptions, (1) minimum deferral rules and (2) business purpose rules. Details regarding these exceptions are covered in the text. Chapter 19, Exhibit 3b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  9. Partnerships—Accounting Methods Cash method. The cash method is available to partnerships that do not have a C corporation partner. The cash method however, “MAY” be used by partnerships with C corporation partners if the partnership’s average annual gross receipts are $5 million or less in the 3 preceding years. The determination is made annually. Accrual Method.Once the three-year average annual gross receipts exceeds $5 million, a partnership with a C corporation partner must use the accrual basis thereafter. Chapter 19, Exhibit 4 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  10. [Taxation at Owner Level] Ordinary Income “From Whatever Source Derived” (including Code Sec. 1245 recapture) – Exclusions and Cost of Goods Sold = Gross Income from Business Operations - Operating Expenses – Code Sec. 702(a)(8) Ordinary Income + or - Separately Stated Items (These are items that may result in different tax treatment by different partners. Examples include capital gain or loss and charitable contributions.) Tax Formula Chapter 19, Exhibit 5 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  11. Code Section 702(a)(8) Income or Loss Definition. Earned income from operations generally follows the same rules as for individuals (i.e., all income from whatever source derived, unless specifically excluded). It is offset by cost of goods sold and operating expenses to produce a single reporting item, “Code Sec. 702(a)(8) income or loss.” The following items are included in the Code Sec. 702(a)(8) computation because they always get ordinary treatment: • Code Sec. 1245 depreciation recapture • Cost of goods sold • Depreciation and other operating expenses • Amortization of organizational expenditures Chapter 19, Exhibit 6a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  12. Code Section 702(a)(8) Income or Loss (1) Amortizable expenditures. Organizational expenses qualify for amortization (and reduce Code Sec. 702(a)(8) income) if: (a) = incurred incidental to formation of the partnership. (e.g., legal fees for drafting the partnership agreement, cost of state filings, cost of required notice publications and organizational meeting costs.) and (b) = incurred before the end of the tax year in which the partnership commences business. At the election of the partnership, a deduction is allowed for the taxable year in which the partnership begins business in an amount equal to the lesser of (a) actual organizational expenses, or (b) $5,000 (reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount by which such organizational costs exceed $50,000). The remainder of such organizational costs are allowed as a deduction ratably over the 180-month period beginning with the month in which the partnership begins business. (2) Nonamortizable expenditures. Organizational expenses DO NOT qualify for amortization if related to issuing and marketing partnership interests. Examples are prospectus preparation costs and commissions on sales of limited partnership interests. They are written off when the partnership is terminated. Chapter 19, Exhibit 6b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  13. Separately Stated Items Items other than partnership operating income and expenses must be separately stated. The reason for showing these items separately is that their ultimate tax treatment may vary from partner to partner. Separately stated items are first computed at the partnership level (same computation method as with individuals). Next, each partner’s distributive share of each separately stated item is reported on his Schedule K-1 of the partnership return. Finally, the K-1 is sent to each partner who transfers his distributive share of Code Sec. 702(a)(8) TI, and each separately stated item listed, from the K-1 to the appropriate section of his individual return. For example, a distributive share of charitable contributions reported on K-1 is transferred to Schedule A of Form 1040. There, it is subject to certain AGI limitations of the partner, which will differ from that of the other partners. Chapter 19, Exhibit 7a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  14. Separately Stated Items Items that must be separately stated include the following: • Code Sec. 1231 gain and loss • Code Sec. 1250 depreciation recapture (Code Sec. 1250, unlike Code Sec. 1245, must be separately stated because corporate partners may be subject to an additional recapture adjustment under Code Sec. 291) • Capital gains and losses • Dividends eligible for a corporate dividend-received deduction • Tax-exempt income and related expense • Investment income and related expense • Passive income and losses from rental and other nonoperating activities • Recovery items (e.g., tax refunds, recovery of bad debts) • Distributions of unrealized receivables or inventory that have substantially appreciated • Tax credits • Charitable contributions • Foreign income taxes paid or accrued • Depletion on oil and gas wells • Alimony payments • Other nonbusiness expenses Chapter 19, Exhibit 7b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  15. Separately Stated Items Chapter 19, Exhibit 7c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  16. Formation of Partnerships—Partner Perspective Chapter 19, Exhibit 8 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  17. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 1. No gain or loss. Generally, Code Sec. 721 requires that no gain or loss is recognized if property is transferred to a partnership in exchange for a partnership interest. It does not matter whether the transfer is during partnership formation or after the partnership had already been formed. Similar nonrecognition rules govern corporate shareholders in a Code Sec. 351 contribution, except for the 80% control requirement. Mandatory nonrecognition. Notwithstanding the exceptions in the following slide, nonrecognition treatment for qualified transactions under Code Sec. 721 is mandatory, not elective for partners. Similarly, nonrecognition treatment under Code Sec. 351 is mandatory for corporate shareholders. Chapter 19, Exhibit 9a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  18. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 Three exceptions to nonrecognition. Gain is recognized in either event below: • Services. A partner’s contribution of services in exchange for a partnership (P/S) interest creates ordinary income (OI) to the partner (P). • Disguised sale. A partner’s contribution of property to a P/S followed by a P/S’s distribution of property (other than a partnership interest) to a partner within 2 years is presumed by IRS to be a disguised sale. • Excess (XS) of P’s debt relief over P’s basis. XS debt relief enjoyed by a partner over the basis of contributed property is treated as capital gain. Similar treatment holds for corporate shareholders. Recall that a shareholder relieved of debt by a corporation has taxable boot if the debt relief exceeds that shareholder’s basis in contributed property Chapter 19, Exhibit 9b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  19. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 2. No 80% control requirement. The 80% control requirement for corporate shareholders is not required of partners contributing property to a P/S. 3. Partner’s outside basis increases with P/S debt assumption. A partner’s outside basis increases by his pro rata share of a P/S’s increase in both recourse and non-recourse debt. The debt may include debt transferred by a contributing partner. (In contrast, a corporate shareholder’s stock basis is not affected by corporate debt assumption.) 4. Partner’s outside basis decreases with debt relief. Debt transferred by a contributing partner to the P/S results in debt relief to the contributing partner. The partner must reduce his basis in the P/S by the amount of debt relief. (Similarly, shareholders must reduce their basis in stock for the amount of their debt assumed by the corporation.) Chapter 19, Exhibit 9c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  20. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 What was Congress thinking when it enacted Code Sec. 721? Same reason as with Code Sec. 351 for corporate shareholders. First, as partners receive only a partnership (P/S) interest, they may not have the wherewithal to pay taxes. Second, the formation of a partnership is not an economic transaction rather, a change in legal form only. Does the partnership recognize gain or loss in a Code Sec. 721 exchange? No. Chapter 19, Exhibit 9d CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  21. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 What is “property”? “Property” includes just about everything except services (i.e., cash, inventory, receivables, land, other tangible assets, nonexclusive licenses and industry know-how.) [Note: Since neither Congress nor the Treasury Dept. have offered a definition of property, the courts have been guided by analogous interpretations under Code Sec. 351. Recall that Code Sec. 351 provides for non-recognition treatment on the transfer of “property” to an 80% controlled corporation in exchange for stock.] Chapter 19, Exhibit 9e CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  22. Formation of Partnerships—Overview of Code Section 721 Why are “services” NOT “property’? Reg. 1.721-1(b)(1) provides that services are NOT property to ensure that a person who provides services to a partnership will be taxed either: • Immediately, on the FMV of the P/S capital interest received: With a contribution of services, the FMV of the P/S capital interest received is taxed to the partner as compensation (i.e., OI). [Recall that a shareholder’s contribution of services gets similar ordinary treatment.] • Or, eventually, on the receipt of income from an income only P/S interest: If services are performed in exchange for an income interest, (not a capital interest), then income recognition is DEFERRED until income is received. The reason for deferring the recognition of income is because of the difficulty in determining a market value of the speculative future profits. Chapter 19, Exhibit 9f CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  23. Contribution of Part Property/Part Services How does Code Sec. 721 apply if a person contributes both property and services? The receipt of a partnership (P/S) interest attributable to services will generally be treated as a separate transaction outside the scope of Code Sec. 721. The transfer of property remains protected from income recognition within the scope of Code Sec. 721. Chapter 19, Exhibit 10 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  24. FACTS: “A” transfers the following items to XYZ Partnership in exchange for a capital interest: Asset FMV Basis Land $50,000 $10,000 Services $35,000 $ 0 QUESTION:How much income is recognized on the transfer? Contribution of Part Property/Part Services—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 11a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  25. Contribution of Part Property/Part Services—Example SOLUTION: Services: $35,000 OI as compensation. Land: $0. The $40,000 [$50,000 – $10,000 = $40,000] realized gain on transfer of land is NOT recognized, consistent with Code Sec. 721; rather, it is a built-in gain. Chapter 19, Exhibit 11b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  26. Disguised Sales—General Rules What is a disguised sale? Code Sec. 707(a)(2)(B) and Reg. 1.707-3 provide that any exchange of property (other than a capital interest) between partner and partnership (P/S) within 2 years of each other is presumed to be a disguised sale. The burden is on the taxpayers to prove otherwise. Chapter 19, Exhibit 12a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  27. Disguised Sales—General Rules If a contribution of property by a partner to a P/S followed by a distribution by the P/S to the partner is a disguised sale, then it is treated as if: (1) The partner sold the contributed property to an unrelated 3rd party; and (2) The P/S sold the distributed property to an unrelated 3rd party. Gains or losses are recognized by partners and partnerships on disguised sales, based on the difference between fair market value (FMV) and adjusted basis (AB). However, recognition of losses depends on the partner’s % ownership interest. If the partner has a “ > 50% capital interest,” NEITHER may recognized losses. Instead, the related party rules must be applied. Code Sec. 707(b)(1). [Compare these rules with the rules for corporations. C Corporations recognize gain but NEVER LOSS on transfers of nonstock property to any shareholder, regardless of ownership %.] Chapter 19, Exhibit 12b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  28. Disguised Sales—General Rules If a disguised sale involves the transfer by a partnership of a capital interest, does part of the transaction qualify for Code Sec. 721 non-recognition treatment? If so, how much? Yes, % of total transfers that get Code Sec. 721 nonrecognition treatment, are: [(a) - (b)]  (a), where: (a) = FMV of property contributed by the partner to the P/S; and (b) = FMV of property other than a capital interest distributed by the P/S to the partner within two years of new partnership. Chapter 19, Exhibit 12c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  29. FACTS: Fred transfers land [$400 fair market value (FMV), $120 adjusted basis (AB), held long-term for investment purposes] to a partnership (P/S) in exchange for: 1. A capital interest worth $100; 2. $300 cash. QUESTIONS: A.  What portion of the exchange represents a disguised sale? B.  What portion of the exchange represents a Code Sec. 721 contribution? C.  What is the tax treatment to Fred? D. What is the tax treatment to P/S? Disguised Sales—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 13a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  30. Disguised Sales—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 13b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  31. Disguised Sales—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 13c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  32. Disguised Sales—Example COMMENTS Even if Fred had received the $300 cash 2 years after receipt of a P/S interest, IRS would still presume that Fred’s contribution was partially a disguised sale as per above. Fred would have to prove otherwise. Chapter 19, Exhibit 13d CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  33. Contribution of Encumbered Property What is the tax effect to partner (P) and partnership (P/S) from contributing encumbered property to a P/S? When a partnership assumes the debt of a contributing partner, the partner relieved of debt is treated as if having received a distribution of money from the partnership in the amount of the debt relief. Code Sec. 752(b). The P’s debt relief is the P/S’s debt burden. That burden is shared by ALL P’s, in accordance with their ownership %’s. The term “ALL P’s” includes the partner relieved of 100% of the debt. In essence, he is relieved of 100% of the debt, then assumes his pro rata share of that same debt assumed by the P/S. The amount of partnership debt assumed by a partner is treated as a cash contribution by the partner to the partnership. Chapter 19, Exhibit 14a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  34. Contribution of Encumbered Property The P’s “net” debt relief (total debt relief minus pro rata debt burden) is non-taxable to the relieved P to the extent of his basis in the P/S. Any net debt relief in excess of basis is capital gain (i.e., same effect as if the amount of excess net debt relief were cash proceeds from the sale of a partnership interest.) The capital gain is short-term or long-term depending on the holding period of the partnership interest. Refer to the Examples for an illustration of the tax effect on P and P/S from encumbered property distributions. Chapter 19, Exhibit 14b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  35. FACTS: Ann, Bob and Cal decide to pool their efforts and form a partnership. They make the following contributions to the partnership: Partner Contribution FMV AB to P P’s % int.. in P/S Ann Services $30,000 $0 30% Bob Land 70,000 20,000 60% Cal Equipment 10,000 11,000 10% Totals $110,000 100% Bob’s land is subject to a $10,000 mortgage that the partnership assumes. The FMV of the P/S is $100,000 [$110,000 FMV assets – $10,000 debt assumed.] Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  36. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example QUESTIONS: (a) Does this transfer of assets qualify for Code Sec. 721 treatment? (b) What is each partner’s gain or loss on contributions to the partnership? (c) What is the resulting basis of each partner in the P/S (“outside basis”)? (d) What is the P/S’s basis in the assets received (“inside basis”)? Chapter 19, Exhibit 15b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  37. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example SOLUTION Ann’s transfer of services falls outside the scope of Code Sec. 721. However, Bob and Cal’s transfers still qualify for Code Sec. 721 treatment, since they represent property contributions. Note that Bob and Cal, get non-recognition treatment under Code Sec. 721, even though they do not have 80% control immediately after the exchange. As previously pointed out, the 80% control rule applies only to corporations. Chapter 19, Exhibit 15c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  38. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15d CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  39. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example COMMENTS: The results in this partnership problem differ from a similar corporate problem in two ways: • No 80% control requirement for non-recognition treatment under Code Sec. 721 (Not so for shareholders under Code Sec. 351.) • Debt assumption is added to a partner’s basis in the P/S. (Not so with a shareholder’s stock basis. However, note that debt relief does reduce the basis of both partner and shareholder.) Chapter 19, Exhibit 15e CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  40. COMPUTATIONS Formula: Ann (Services) Bob (Land) Cal (Equipment) (a) FMV, P/S interest received $30,000 $ 70,000 $ 10,000 (b) Basis in asset contributed 0 (20,000) (11,000) 30,000 50,000 (1,000) (c) = (a) – (b) Realized gain (loss) $30,000 $ 0 $ 0 Ordinary income recognized on service contribution (d) = (c) from services Reason for tax treatment Code Sec. 83(a) (Services cont’d are OI to extent of FMV of P/S interest.) Code Sec. 721 (Nonrecog. rule) Code Sec. 721 (Nonrecog. rule) Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15f CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  41. COMPUTATIONS Formula: Ann (Services) Bob (Land) Cal (Equipment) (e) Gross debt relief $ 0 $ 10,000 $ 0 (f) = P/S debt assumption x 1/3 Less: Share of debt assumption 3,000 6,000 1,000 (g) = (e) – (f) Net debt relief 0 4,000 0 (h) = (b) Basis in asset contributed 0 (20,000) (11,000) (i) = (g) – (h) Excess debt relief N/A 0 N/A (j) = (i) Capital gain recognized on excess debt relief $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 Reason for tax treatment Code Sec. 731(a)(1) (No XS debt relief, so no capital gain) Code Sec. 731(a)(1) (No XS debt relief, so no capital gain) Code Sec. 731(a)(1) (No XS debt relief, so no capital gain) Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15g CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  42. COMPUTATIONS Formula: Ann (Services) Bob (Land) Cal (Equipment) (k) = (b) Basis in asset contributed $ 0 $20,000 $11,000 (l) = (d) Gain on service cont’n: 30,000 0 0 (m) = (k) + (l) P/S inside basis $30,000 $20,000 $11,000 Reason for tax treatment: Code Sec.732 P/S basis in assets is same as P’s before contribution + any Code Sec. 83(a) gain Code Sec.732 P/S basis in assets is same as P’s before contribution Code Sec.732 P/S basis in assets is same as P’s before contribution Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15h CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  43. COMPUTATIONS Formula: Ann (Services) Bob (Land) Cal (Equipment) (n) = (j) Gain on XS debt relief $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 (o) = (f) Share of debt assumption 3,000 6,000 1,000 (p) = (e) Debt relief 0 $(10,000) 0 (q) = (m) + (n) + (o) – (p) Partner’s outside basis $33,000 $ 16,000 $12,000 Reason for tax treatment Code Sec.752(a) Debts assumed by P/S are treated as contributions by P’s Code Sec.752(a) Debts assumed by P/S are treated as contributions by P’s Code Sec. 752(a): Debts assumed by P/S are treated as contributions by P’s Code Sec. 752(b): A P’s debt relief is treated as a P/S distribution to that P Code Sec. 731(a) and 722: XS debt relief over basis of assets cont’d is gain and such gain increases a P’s basis in the P/S. Contribution of Encumbered Property—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 15i CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  44. Contribution of “Know-How” What is the tax effect on a partner who acquires a P/S interest without contributing property or services? A person may be valued by a partnership (P/S) for her client contacts, or unique ability to do certain things (“know-how”). If admitted into the P/S without contributing property or services, the P/S credits the partner’s capital account, based on her % share of the fair market value (FMV) of P/S assets, net of her % share of P/S debt. The offset is to goodwill, which is treated as property in a Code Sec. 721 exchange (i.e., non-recognition treatment when contributed to the P/S in exchange for an outside interest). Chapter 19, Exhibit 16 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  45. FACTS: Jack and Jill form a P/S by contributing the property listed below. QUESTION: What are the tax consequences to Jack, Jill and the P/S? Jack Jill Property Contributed Land Goodwill Agreed upon FMV $15,000 $15,000 Basis 5,000 0 Realizable gain on contrib’n $10,000 $15,000 Recognized gain on contrib’n 0 (Code Sec. 721) 0 (Code Sec. 721) P’s outside basis in P/S int. $ 5,000 $ 0 Built-in gains 10,000 15,000 P/S inside basis in the assets $ 5,000 $ 0 Capital balance of each partner $15,000 (10 + 5) $15,000 (15 + 0) Contribution of “Know-How”—Example Chapter 19, Exhibit 17a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  46. Contribution of “Know-How”—Example SOLUTION: If both Jack and Jill were to sell their partnership interests for $15,000 each, assuming no other transactions, the partnership would have no distributive gain, [since post-contribution-date values do not change] but Jack and Jill would recognize their respective built-in gains: Jack: $10,000 capital gain [$15,000 FMV at contribution – $5,000 basis at contribution] Jill: $15m capital gain [$15,00 FMV at contribution – $0 basis at contribution]. Chapter 19, Exhibit 17b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  47. Inside Basis Computations How is a partnership’s inside basis in property contributed by partners determined? Code Sec. 763 provides that the basis of property received by a partnership will be Partner’s basis in contributed property; + Ordinary income recognized by a partner on contributions of services. = Partnership’s inside basis in property Note that gain recognized by a partner on excess debt relief (i.e., debt relief - debt assumption - basis in assets contributed) does not increase the partnership’s inside basis in the contributed assets, even though it DOES increases the outside basis of the contributing partner in her partnership interest. Chapter 19, Exhibit 18 CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  48. Outside Basis Computations How is the partner’s outside basis in the partnership (P/S) determined? Code Sec. 722 and related regulations provide the following formula: + Basis in contributed property +/– Share of P/S’s taxable income or loss under Code Sec. 702(a)(8) (i.e., earned income/loss, both active and passive) +/– Share of “separately stated items” + Gain recognized by partner on services contributed + Gain recognized by partner on excess debt relief + Share of debt assumption (if recourse debt, % share is based on % share of P/S loss; if non-recourse debt, % share is based on % share of P/S profits. Both % are usually the same.) – Share of P/S losses – Debt relief – Basis of property distributions, including cash = Partner’s outside basis of partnership interest Chapter 19, Exhibit 19a CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  49. Outside Basis Computations Special basis rules: 1. Losses may not reduce basis below zero. Instead, they remain suspended under the at-risk rules until sufficient basis arises to pass the at-risk hurdle. 2.  At-risk basis is reduced by the amount of any released losses previously suspended under the at-risk rules. 3. No separate adjustment to basis is made for guaranteed payments received by a partner from his P/S. The reason: Guaranteed payments to partners are deductible by the P/S against Code Sec. 702(a)(8) operating income (since they are not contingent upon P/S profits). When Code Sec. 702(a)(8) income is later allocated to the partner, he automatically gets a basis reduction reflecting the guaranteed payment deduction taken by the P/S. Chapter 19, Exhibit 19b CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics

  50. Outside Basis Computations Chapter 19, Exhibit 19c CCH Federal Taxation Comprehensive Topics