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Plant Anatomy
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Plant Anatomy

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  1. Plant Anatomy

  2. Definitions • Anatomy • Study of form and basic organization. • Morphology • Study of tissue organization. • Physiology • Study of normal organism function.

  3. Life Cycle • Juvenile • Adult • Reproductive Vegetative

  4. Plant Structure • Two main organ systems: shoot and root • Shoot • Above ground • Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits • Root • Below ground • roots, tubers, rhizomes

  5. Plant Cells • Formed at meristems. • Mitosis in meristem produces new cells. • Two types of meristems. • Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot. • Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.

  6. Apical Meristem

  7. Lateral Meristem

  8. Cells are grouped into tissues. • Dermal • Ground • Vascular

  9. Cell Types Epidermal Ground Vascular Zea mays L. leaf cross section

  10. Dermal Tissue • Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants. • Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle. • Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.

  11. Ground Tissue • Bulk of the primary plant body. • Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

  12. Parenchyma

  13. Parenchyma pineapple

  14. Collenchyma Celery

  15. Schlerenchyma used to make rope

  16. Vascular Tissue • Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals. • Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.

  17. Vascular tissue

  18. Xylem Dutchmens pipe Dicot stem

  19. Vegetative Structures • Roots • Stem • Leaf

  20. Roots • Tap root • Fibrous root • Adventitious root • Tuberous root • Aerial root

  21. Roots Fiberous Tuberous Taproot Taproots

  22. Stem Anatomy • Bud – undeveloped shoot. • Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem. • Internode – Space between nodes. • Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem. • Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.

  23. Stem

  24. Stem Modifications • Tuber – underground stem with nodes • Rhizome – underground stem with buds • Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds • Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves • Corm – underground stem with papery leaves

  25. Modified Stem Tendril Thorn Onion set Rhizome

  26. Modified Stem II Asparagus Stolon

  27. Growth Form • Herb • Shrub • Tree • Vine

  28. Growth Cycle • Annual – single season • Biennial – two seasons • Perennial – multiple seasons • Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons • Deciduous – leaves die in cold or dry

  29. Leaf Parts • Petiole • Blade • Stipule • Axillary bud

  30. Leaf Structure Blade Stipule Petiole Axillary Bud

  31. Leaf Arrangement • Alternate • Opposite • Whorled

  32. Leaf form • Simple • Compound • Pinnate • Palmate

  33. Vein Arrangement • Pinnate • Palmate • Parallel • Dichotomous Dichotomous

  34. Ovate Elliptic Oblong Lanceolate Linear Orbicular Cordate Hastate Sagittate Peltate Perfoliate Terete Leaf Shape

  35. Entire Serrate Doubly serrate Dentate Crenate Undulate Revolute Crisped Lobed Leaf Margins

  36. Misc. Vegetative Structures • Thorns • modified stems (Honey Locust) • Spines • modified leaves (Cactus) • Prickles • epidermal outgrowth (Rose)

  37. Reproductive Structures • Flowers • Fruits

  38. Floral Parts • Pedicel • Sepal • Petal • Perianth • Stamen • Carpel • Pistil

  39. Flower

  40. Floral Symmetry • Actinomorphic (regular) • Many axes of symmetry, i.e.. the same wherever you cut it. • Zygomorphic • One axis of symmetry, i.e.. can only cut one way.

  41. Inflorescence Types Spadix Spikelet Solitary Spike Whorl Panicle Raceme Compound Umbel Umbel

  42. Fruit Types • Dry, indehiscent fruit • Dry, dehiscent fruit • Fleshy fruit • Other

  43. Dry, indehiscent fruits • Achene (lettuce) • Samara (maple) • Caryposis (wheat) • Nut (almond)

  44. Dry, Dehiscent Fruit • Legume (soybean) • Capsule (tobacco) • Silique (Arabidopsis) • Schizocarp (maple)

  45. Fleshy Fruits • Drupe (peach, nectarine) • Berry (tomato) • Pepo (cucumber) • Hesperidium (citrus) • Hip (rose) • Pome (apple, pear)

  46. Other Fruit Types • Aggregate • mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry) • Multiple • mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple) • Accessory • fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)

  47. Placentation Axile Marginal Parietal Basal Free central Apical

  48. Ovary Position Hypogynous (above calyx) Perigynous (within the floral cup) Epigynous (below calyx)

  49. One cotyledon Parallel leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of three Vascular bundles scattered in stem Two cotyledons Netlike leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem Monocots vs. Dicots

  50. Other Anatomy Terms Leaf section Cell sketch Roots