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  1. A NEW ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSEBOOK新编英语语法教程 章振邦 编 周庆锦 讲

  2. Lecture 30Coordination了 A coordinate construction is a sequence of semantically-related grammatical units that are similar in a form, equal in rank of structure, identical in function and are connected by coordinators.

  3. In ordinary expository prose, parallelism can be regarded as a type of coordination, linking elements that are already logically connected. Thus an adjective is paralleled to another, a noun to a noun or a verb to a verb. • E.g. I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. (---- Winston Churchill) • Saying good-bye to the world she knows and loves, Paris heads west, to San Francisco, and discovers being single in a world full of men who are too young, too old, too married, or too good to be true.

  4. Comma Faults: Comma faults result from using only a comma to connect two main clauses.(in place of a period , a semicolon, a colon, or a dash.) To avoid comma faults, you can either insert a proper punctuation( a semicolon, a colon…) or join the sentences with a conjuction. • Faulty: You don’t speak fluently, you should practise more. • Revised: 1,…..;….. • 2, ….so…. • 3,…. . …..

  5. Run-on Sentences: Run-on sentences are sentences which run together with neither proper punctuation nor proper conjunction. • E.g. Run-on: She put on her bathing cap then she plunged into the water. • Revised: ……. . Then….

  6. You can fool all of the people some of the time . You can fool some of the people all of the time. You can’t fool all of the people all of the time. • You can fool all of the people some of the time andsome of the people all of the time,but you can’t fool all of the people all of the time. • ----- Abraham Lincoln

  7. Coordinating devices • 1, Punctuation marks • a, The comma .If we want to make the series more rapid so as to create a suggestion of urgency and excitement, we can use commas all through the series, eliminating the coordinator. • b, The colon coordinates by amplification, with conjunct like accordingly, furthermore, however, nevertheless, therefore, hence , etc. • c, The semicolon coordinates by contrast.

  8. 2, Coordinators • 1) And-group: • and, both…and, not only…but (also), not…nor, neither…nor, etc. • To make the series move slowly and seem lengthy and drawn-out, we repeat the coordinator all through the series, eliminating the commas. • In addition to semantic extension, and can denote other meanings, such as temporal sequence, result, condition, contrast, and it can also function as an attitudinal disjunct. (p.548) • E.g. Customer: Can you give me a room and a bath? • Hotel clerk: I can give you a room, but you have to take your own bath, sir. • Grammatical constructions like “nice and…, good and…, go and…,” seem to be, but actually are not , coordinate constructions: • He is good and hungry. (very, extremely.) • You’re all nice and hardworking. • Keep it sweet and short.

  9. • And前的修饰后面的,表示程度,限于少数表性质和程度的形容词和副词。最典型的是 nice and good.还有: • Fine, rare, sweet, bright, big, clear, lovely, pure, well 等: • It’s rare and hot inside. • She is big and busy. • I shall go into business bright and early in the morning. • I didn’t like the speech, but at least it was nice and short.

  10. 这种结构第二个形容词在名词前作定时,and往往可以省略这种结构第二个形容词在名词前作定时,and往往可以省略 • I prefer good black coffee…. • 浓浓的咖啡。 • You scold me so much in the nice long letter. … 长长的信。 • And 连接两个相同名词表“不同类型”的概念,且常有“有好的,也有坏的”的含义: • There are teachers and teachers. • You can find doctors and doctors. • There are translations and translations. • There are women and women.

  11. 但如重复两次,则表“众多”: We saw dogs and dogs and dogs all over the place. 两个或两个以上的简单句关系如不很紧密,并列连词可引导单独一个句子: You’re alive! And she’s dead. I’m sorry to trouble you. But can you direct me to the nearest post office?

  12. 口语中,and 与 be 或 go 的完成体搭配表示说话人对另一人所做某蠢事感到恼怒或埋怨: • That idiot Antonio has gone and locked our door. …这个笨蛋,竟把我们的门锁了。 • You’ve gone and waked him. He’s so tired. • 你怎么把他弄醒了!他可累坏了。 • You’ve been and bought such a pair of shoes. • 你怎么买了这么一双鞋! • Who’s been and taken my dictionary? • 真讨厌,谁拿了我的字典?

  13. And that (而且) 用来补充说明前面的内容以加强语气。其中 that 代替上文中某个词、短语或句子,以避免重复。有时只用and: • Return to your work, and that at once. • 回去干活,马上去! • He will come, and that soon. • ……而且马上就来。

  14. 表示并列成分都被否定时,在 not , nothing , without , never 等后宜用 or, 不用 and, 因为 and 连接的并列成分在否定词后有歧义: • He doesn’t have long hair or wear jeans.= He …and he doesn’t wear…. • He doesn’t have long hair and wear jeans. • = 1) 同上。 • 2) Either he doesn’t have long hair OR he doesn’t wear jeans.要么…要么… • She can’t sing or dance.=She…and she…. • She …………..and…….=1)…. • 2) Either she can’t sing or she can’t dance.

  15. And 连接的分句表主从意义。第一分句是第二分句的条件或时间: • Go by train and you’ll get there quicker. • = If you go… • One more effort, and you’ll succeed. • = If you make… • One more boot, and I’ll have a pair. • 如并列分句均为祈使句,第一句仍可表条件,第二句表结果: • Surrender and live; resist and die. • = If you surrender, you’ll live; … • Don’t drink and drive. • = If you don’t drink, you can drive. Or: • If you drink, you can’t drive. 不许酒后开车。 • C.f. Don’t drink or drive.= Don’t drink and don’t drive.

  16. 有时用 and 表示部分否定,即否定其中一个,通常是否定后者: • He is not a and a writer.月 • 他是教师,不是作家。 • He didn’t speak clearly and correctly. • 他讲得清楚,但不正确。

  17. Or-group coordinators: or, either…or… • 在否定句中,一般用 or 不用 and 连接同等成分。Or 一般不表示所择关系: • He has no money or food. • = He has neither money nor food. • I didn’t find him clever or good-looking. • = I found him neither clever nor…. • A sheep was not moving about or eating grass like the others. • 有一只羊的行动和(?或)吃草的样子跟别的羊不一样。 • Spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongs. • 蜘蛛从不危害我们,也(?或)不危害我们的财物。

  18. But-group coordinators: • But, not…but, while, whereas, yet, only etc, denoting contrast or a turn in meaning. • Early as it was, but a lot of people were waiting to buy new stamps in front of the post office. But 错。并列连词不可用于as, though, although引导的从属句中。 • My name is Robert, ___ most of my friends call me Bob for short. • A, then B, instead C, however D, but • 选 D, C 是连接副词,在连接分句时,前面用“;”或前后用“,”,but 后一般不用逗号。

  19. I never see her but I want to kiss her. • 错:我从未……但我想…… • 正:我没有一次见到她而不想…… • I never think of summer but I think of my childhood. • I never see the picture but I think of my college years. • 上列各句中 but 是 but that 的省略式。它引出的从句带有结果含义,主句总是否定,并含有never, too, so, such 等词。换言之,当 主句是否定时,but 作”without”解,译为“一…就”,“如果不…就不会…”,“除…外,就不…”又如: • No man is too old __ he can learn. • A, that B, as C, when D, but • D.人不管多老,都可以学习。 • I am not such a fool but that I understand you. • 我不至于蠢到连你都不了解。 • It never rains but it pours. • 直译:除了倾盆下外,就总不下雨。/每次下都是倾盆而下。/ • 一下雨就是倾盆大雨。 • 可译为:不雨则己,一雨倾盆。

  20. There is _ would be surprised at the news. • A, no man but who B, no man but • C, no man D, not any man • B. 上句的 but 是关系代词,相当于 that…not, who…not.在从句中充当主语。这种从句除 but 外不会再有其它主语。又如: • There’s no one but knows that. • 没有人不知道这件事。 • There’s no one of us but wishes to help you. • 我们中没有一个人不愿意帮助你。 • There are very few but admire his talents. • 很少有人不敬佩他的才华。 • There is no rule but has exceptions. • 没有无例外的规则。/凡规则都有例外。 • It is one of those true sayings that there is no one__errs. • A, that B, who C, what D, but • There was not a single person there but who thought you were in the right. ? • With the introduction of the electronic computer, there are no complicated problems __ can be solved. • A, that B, as C, but D, which

  21. 1), He was anything but a hero. • 2), There is anything but easy. • 基本用法和意义相同,都强调“某人或某事绝非…”,但 1) 后跟名词或代词时可有两种译法:”除…外什么都是/行/可以;绝不,根本不,一点儿也不” 。 • 2) 后跟形容词时则只译 “绝不,根本不”。例: • My doctor won’t let me drink anything but champagne. …只让我喝…“除…外,不让” • The little bridge is anything but safe. • …一点也不安全。 • He is anything but polite. 他没有一点礼貌。 • He is anything but a fool. 他绝不是傻瓜。 • (比较:He is nothing but a fool.他只不过是/仅仅是个傻瓜。/ • 除..外什么也没有。He is all but a fool. …几乎是…) • It is not “terrible” at all. It is __ “terrible” • A, but for B, all but C, nothing but D, anything but • But for 引出的介词短语相当一个非真实条件句,谓语词要用虚拟: • But for John they would all have died. • But for 表例外(除…之外)意义与用法近似 except for, 但不及它普通。 一

  22. Quasi- coordination 准并列 • 1.连接主语 along with, together with, as much as, as well as, and: • Ann, as much as her brothers, was to blame. • The ocean, as well as the gulf, provides good fishing. • The ambassador, and perhaps his wife too, is likely to be present. • Catty, and nobody else, is able to do the job. • 2.连接主语以外的成份: • As well as (并列连词或介词) • As well as breaking his leg, he hurt his arm.(介) • She is clever as well as beautiful. • A as well as B 侧重点常在A (not only A but also B侧重点在B)。A往往当作新信息加以强调。一般译为 “不仅 B,而且 A; 既 B 又 A; A 和 B一样也…; 除 B 外还有 A”: • I’m a Chinese, but I have foreign friends as well as Chinese friends. (如对调则强调不对)

  23. Notice that a force has direction as well as magnitude. • 要注意,力不但有大小,而且有方向。 • Electric energy can be changed into light energy as well as into sound energy. • 电能既可变为声能,又可变为光能。 • Hoover wanted men who could handle a teacup as well as a Tommy-gun. • 胡佛需要既会使用自动步枪又懂社交礼仪的人。 • 跟 and, or 一样,连接的成分要对等: • Thomas was a real friend, for he advised me as well as help(ing ) me with my Arabic. • ?

  24. 在现代英语里, as well as有时也表达A和B同等重要,相当于 and, and also: • You helped him as well as me.=…both… • 可见,这个结构究竟在语意上强调A还是表示A,B同等重要,需对上下文进行具体分析才能确定。 • As well as还可作比较结构,意为“跟..一样好”: • He speaks English as well as his teacher. • I like Joe as well as Jack. 可有三解: • 1) 我跟Jack一样地喜欢Joe. 关联从属连词, • as Jack (likes). • 2) 我喜欢Joe,同样喜欢Jack. 从属连词, as 从句省略 • I like. • 3) 我不仅喜欢Jack,也喜欢Joe. 准并列连词。

  25. Rather than (从属连词、介词、或并列连词), 相当于 and not 或 instead of: • She telephoned rather than write从属/writing介词 • /wrote并列. • 用作从属连词或介词时,如果强调,其前可带逗号: • We ought to check up, rather than just accept/ accepting what he says. • If not 和 not to say(=if one may not say)与只能引导名词词组的 not to mention /not to speak of /to say nothing of 意义不同: • It would be foolish, if not / not to say mad, to sell your car. • He has experience, to say nothing of / not to mention scholarship. • He can speak German and French, not to speak of / to say nothing of English.

  26. Still less(=much less), still more(=much more): • I don’t like him, still less respect him. • He can do it well, still more you. • More x than y = x rather than y: • I was more angry than frightened. • He is more dead than alive. • (=He is dead rather than alive.)

  27. Not so much X as Y = more Y than X • = Y rather than X : • I don’t much dislike him as hate him. • He is not so much unintelligent as uneducated. • It’s not so much that I don’t want to come as (that)/ but (that) I just haven’t got the time.

  28. 插入并列和追加并列 • Margaret, and Dorothy, too, dances very beautifully. • Margaret dances very beautifully, and Dorothy, too. • John writes extremely well, and Sally, too. • John – and Sally, too – writes extremely. • He is, or was at any rate, a major composer. • He is a major composer, or was at any rate. • She can, and probably will, beat the world record. • She can beat the world record, and probably will. • Peter will, and Bob might, take the course. • Peter will take the course, and Bob might. • George seemed, and Bob certainly was angry. • George seemed angry, and Bob certainly was. • He got married, but she was still unmarried, in 1960. • ………………...in 1960, but she was still unmarried then. • Allen is keen on, and Jim seems interested in, linguistics. • …………………linguistics, and Jim seems interested in it. • He gave a thousand dollars, and promised several thousand more, to the fund the disabled. • ………to the fund for the disabled, and promised several thousand more to it.

  29. 在口语体中有的从属意义也可用并列结构表示:在口语体中有的从属意义也可用并列结构表示: • As you are tired, you had better take rest. • You are tired, and …. • The bridge had been destroyed, so that/ and (so) they could not return. • He is fat, whereas/ but his wife is thin. • If we don’t hurry up, we shall be late. • Hurry up, or …. • She gave me the jumper, which she had knitted herself. • …; she had…. • Young men by the dozen came up, asking/ and asked her to dance. • The game being over, there was no point in our waiting longer. • … was over, and…. • They have tried, each in a different way. • …., and each has tried ….