A NEW ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSEBOOK新编英语语法教程 章振邦 编 周庆锦 讲
Lecture 30Coordination了 A coordinate construction is a sequence of semantically-related grammatical units that are similar in a form, equal in rank of structure, identical in function and are connected by coordinators.
In ordinary expository prose, parallelism can be regarded as a type of coordination, linking elements that are already logically connected. Thus an adjective is paralleled to another, a noun to a noun or a verb to a verb. • E.g. I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. (---- Winston Churchill) • Saying good-bye to the world she knows and loves, Paris heads west, to San Francisco, and discovers being single in a world full of men who are too young, too old, too married, or too good to be true.
Comma Faults: Comma faults result from using only a comma to connect two main clauses.(in place of a period , a semicolon, a colon, or a dash.) To avoid comma faults, you can either insert a proper punctuation( a semicolon, a colon…) or join the sentences with a conjuction. • Faulty: You don’t speak fluently, you should practise more. • Revised: 1,…..;….. • 2, ….so…. • 3,…. . …..
Run-on Sentences: Run-on sentences are sentences which run together with neither proper punctuation nor proper conjunction. • E.g. Run-on: She put on her bathing cap then she plunged into the water. • Revised: ……. . Then….
You can fool all of the people some of the time . You can fool some of the people all of the time. You can’t fool all of the people all of the time. • You can fool all of the people some of the time andsome of the people all of the time,but you can’t fool all of the people all of the time. • ----- Abraham Lincoln
Coordinating devices • 1, Punctuation marks • a, The comma .If we want to make the series more rapid so as to create a suggestion of urgency and excitement, we can use commas all through the series, eliminating the coordinator. • b, The colon coordinates by amplification, with conjunct like accordingly, furthermore, however, nevertheless, therefore, hence , etc. • c, The semicolon coordinates by contrast.
2, Coordinators • 1) And-group: • and, both…and, not only…but (also), not…nor, neither…nor, etc. • To make the series move slowly and seem lengthy and drawn-out, we repeat the coordinator all through the series, eliminating the commas. • In addition to semantic extension, and can denote other meanings, such as temporal sequence, result, condition, contrast, and it can also function as an attitudinal disjunct. (p.548) • E.g. Customer: Can you give me a room and a bath? • Hotel clerk: I can give you a room, but you have to take your own bath, sir. • Grammatical constructions like “nice and…, good and…, go and…,” seem to be, but actually are not , coordinate constructions: • He is good and hungry. (very, extremely.) • You’re all nice and hardworking. • Keep it sweet and short.
卜 • And前的修饰后面的，表示程度,限于少数表性质和程度的形容词和副词。最典型的是 nice and good.还有： • Fine, rare, sweet, bright, big, clear, lovely, pure, well 等： • It’s rare and hot inside. • She is big and busy. • I shall go into business bright and early in the morning. • I didn’t like the speech, but at least it was nice and short.
这种结构第二个形容词在名词前作定时,and往往可以省略这种结构第二个形容词在名词前作定时,and往往可以省略 • I prefer good black coffee…. • 浓浓的咖啡。 • You scold me so much in the nice long letter. … 长长的信。 • And 连接两个相同名词表“不同类型”的概念，且常有“有好的，也有坏的”的含义： • There are teachers and teachers. • You can find doctors and doctors. • There are translations and translations. • There are women and women.
但如重复两次，则表“众多”: We saw dogs and dogs and dogs all over the place. 两个或两个以上的简单句关系如不很紧密，并列连词可引导单独一个句子： You’re alive! And she’s dead. I’m sorry to trouble you. But can you direct me to the nearest post office?
口语中，and 与 be 或 go 的完成体搭配表示说话人对另一人所做某蠢事感到恼怒或埋怨： • That idiot Antonio has gone and locked our door. …这个笨蛋，竟把我们的门锁了。 • You’ve gone and waked him. He’s so tired. • 你怎么把他弄醒了！他可累坏了。 • You’ve been and bought such a pair of shoes. • 你怎么买了这么一双鞋！ • Who’s been and taken my dictionary? • 真讨厌，谁拿了我的字典？
And that (而且) 用来补充说明前面的内容以加强语气。其中 that 代替上文中某个词、短语或句子，以避免重复。有时只用and: • Return to your work, and that at once. • 回去干活，马上去！ • He will come, and that soon. • ……而且马上就来。
表示并列成分都被否定时，在 not , nothing , without , never 等后宜用 or, 不用 and, 因为 and 连接的并列成分在否定词后有歧义： • He doesn’t have long hair or wear jeans.= He …and he doesn’t wear…. • He doesn’t have long hair and wear jeans. • = 1) 同上。 • 2) Either he doesn’t have long hair OR he doesn’t wear jeans.要么…要么… • She can’t sing or dance.=She…and she…. • She …………..and…….=1)…. • 2) Either she can’t sing or she can’t dance.
And 连接的分句表主从意义。第一分句是第二分句的条件或时间： • Go by train and you’ll get there quicker. • = If you go… • One more effort, and you’ll succeed. • = If you make… • One more boot, and I’ll have a pair. • 如并列分句均为祈使句，第一句仍可表条件，第二句表结果： • Surrender and live; resist and die. • = If you surrender, you’ll live; … • Don’t drink and drive. • = If you don’t drink, you can drive. Or: • If you drink, you can’t drive. 不许酒后开车。 • C.f. Don’t drink or drive.= Don’t drink and don’t drive.
有时用 and 表示部分否定，即否定其中一个，通常是否定后者： • He is not a and a writer.月 • 他是教师，不是作家。 • He didn’t speak clearly and correctly. • 他讲得清楚，但不正确。
Or-group coordinators: or, either…or… • 在否定句中，一般用 or 不用 and 连接同等成分。Or 一般不表示所择关系： • He has no money or food. • = He has neither money nor food. • I didn’t find him clever or good-looking. • = I found him neither clever nor…. • A sheep was not moving about or eating grass like the others. • 有一只羊的行动和(？或)吃草的样子跟别的羊不一样。 • Spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongs. • 蜘蛛从不危害我们，也(？或)不危害我们的财物。
But-group coordinators: • But, not…but, while, whereas, yet, only etc, denoting contrast or a turn in meaning. • Early as it was, but a lot of people were waiting to buy new stamps in front of the post office. But 错。并列连词不可用于as, though, although引导的从属句中。 • My name is Robert, ___ most of my friends call me Bob for short. • A, then B, instead C, however D, but • 选 D, C 是连接副词，在连接分句时，前面用“;”或前后用“,”，but 后一般不用逗号。
I never see her but I want to kiss her. • 错：我从未……但我想…… • 正：我没有一次见到她而不想…… • I never think of summer but I think of my childhood. • I never see the picture but I think of my college years. • 上列各句中 but 是 but that 的省略式。它引出的从句带有结果含义，主句总是否定，并含有never, too, so, such 等词。换言之，当 主句是否定时，but 作”without”解，译为“一…就”,“如果不…就不会…”,“除…外，就不…”又如： • No man is too old __ he can learn. • A, that B, as C, when D, but • D.人不管多老，都可以学习。 • I am not such a fool but that I understand you. • 我不至于蠢到连你都不了解。 • It never rains but it pours. • 直译：除了倾盆下外，就总不下雨。/每次下都是倾盆而下。/ • 一下雨就是倾盆大雨。 • 可译为：不雨则己，一雨倾盆。
There is _ would be surprised at the news. • A, no man but who B, no man but • C, no man D, not any man • B. 上句的 but 是关系代词，相当于 that…not, who…not.在从句中充当主语。这种从句除 but 外不会再有其它主语。又如： • There’s no one but knows that. • 没有人不知道这件事。 • There’s no one of us but wishes to help you. • 我们中没有一个人不愿意帮助你。 • There are very few but admire his talents. • 很少有人不敬佩他的才华。 • There is no rule but has exceptions. • 没有无例外的规则。/凡规则都有例外。 • It is one of those true sayings that there is no one__errs. • A, that B, who C, what D, but • There was not a single person there but who thought you were in the right. ？ • With the introduction of the electronic computer, there are no complicated problems __ can be solved. • A, that B, as C, but D, which
1), He was anything but a hero. • 2), There is anything but easy. • 基本用法和意义相同，都强调“某人或某事绝非…”，但 1) 后跟名词或代词时可有两种译法：”除…外什么都是/行/可以;绝不,根本不，一点儿也不” 。 • 2) 后跟形容词时则只译 “绝不，根本不”。例： • My doctor won’t let me drink anything but champagne. …只让我喝…“除…外，不让” • The little bridge is anything but safe. • …一点也不安全。 • He is anything but polite. 他没有一点礼貌。 • He is anything but a fool. 他绝不是傻瓜。 • (比较：He is nothing but a fool.他只不过是/仅仅是个傻瓜。/ • 除..外什么也没有。He is all but a fool. …几乎是…) • It is not “terrible” at all. It is __ “terrible” • A, but for B, all but C, nothing but D, anything but • But for 引出的介词短语相当一个非真实条件句，谓语词要用虚拟： • But for John they would all have died. • But for 表例外(除…之外)意义与用法近似 except for, 但不及它普通。 一
Quasi- coordination 准并列 • 1.连接主语 along with, together with, as much as, as well as, and: • Ann, as much as her brothers, was to blame. • The ocean, as well as the gulf, provides good fishing. • The ambassador, and perhaps his wife too, is likely to be present. • Catty, and nobody else, is able to do the job. • 2.连接主语以外的成份： • As well as (并列连词或介词) • As well as breaking his leg, he hurt his arm.(介) • She is clever as well as beautiful. • A as well as B 侧重点常在A (not only A but also B侧重点在B)。A往往当作新信息加以强调。一般译为 “不仅 B,而且 A; 既 B 又 A; A 和 B一样也…; 除 B 外还有 A”: • I’m a Chinese, but I have foreign friends as well as Chinese friends. (如对调则强调不对)
Notice that a force has direction as well as magnitude. • 要注意,力不但有大小,而且有方向。 • Electric energy can be changed into light energy as well as into sound energy. • 电能既可变为声能,又可变为光能。 • Hoover wanted men who could handle a teacup as well as a Tommy-gun. • 胡佛需要既会使用自动步枪又懂社交礼仪的人。 • 跟 and, or 一样,连接的成分要对等： • Thomas was a real friend, for he advised me as well as help(ing ) me with my Arabic. • ？
在现代英语里, as well as有时也表达A和B同等重要，相当于 and, and also: • You helped him as well as me.=…both… • 可见,这个结构究竟在语意上强调A还是表示A,B同等重要,需对上下文进行具体分析才能确定。 • As well as还可作比较结构,意为“跟..一样好”： • He speaks English as well as his teacher. • I like Joe as well as Jack. 可有三解： • 1) 我跟Jack一样地喜欢Joe. 关联从属连词, • as Jack (likes). • 2) 我喜欢Joe,同样喜欢Jack. 从属连词, as 从句省略 • I like. • 3) 我不仅喜欢Jack,也喜欢Joe. 准并列连词。
Rather than (从属连词、介词、或并列连词), 相当于 and not 或 instead of: • She telephoned rather than write从属/writing介词 • /wrote并列. • 用作从属连词或介词时，如果强调，其前可带逗号: • We ought to check up, rather than just accept/ accepting what he says. • If not 和 not to say(=if one may not say)与只能引导名词词组的 not to mention /not to speak of /to say nothing of 意义不同: • It would be foolish, if not / not to say mad, to sell your car. • He has experience, to say nothing of / not to mention scholarship. • He can speak German and French, not to speak of / to say nothing of English.
Still less(=much less), still more(=much more)： • I don’t like him, still less respect him. • He can do it well, still more you. • More x than y = x rather than y: • I was more angry than frightened. • He is more dead than alive. • (=He is dead rather than alive.)
Not so much X as Y = more Y than X • = Y rather than X : • I don’t much dislike him as hate him. • He is not so much unintelligent as uneducated. • It’s not so much that I don’t want to come as (that)/ but (that) I just haven’t got the time.
插入并列和追加并列 • Margaret, and Dorothy, too, dances very beautifully. • Margaret dances very beautifully, and Dorothy, too. • John writes extremely well, and Sally, too. • John – and Sally, too – writes extremely. • He is, or was at any rate, a major composer. • He is a major composer, or was at any rate. • She can, and probably will, beat the world record. • She can beat the world record, and probably will. • Peter will, and Bob might, take the course. • Peter will take the course, and Bob might. • George seemed, and Bob certainly was angry. • George seemed angry, and Bob certainly was. • He got married, but she was still unmarried, in 1960. • ………………...in 1960, but she was still unmarried then. • Allen is keen on, and Jim seems interested in, linguistics. • …………………linguistics, and Jim seems interested in it. • He gave a thousand dollars, and promised several thousand more, to the fund the disabled. • ………to the fund for the disabled, and promised several thousand more to it.
在口语体中有的从属意义也可用并列结构表示：在口语体中有的从属意义也可用并列结构表示： • As you are tired, you had better take rest. • You are tired, and …. • The bridge had been destroyed, so that/ and (so) they could not return. • He is fat, whereas/ but his wife is thin. • If we don’t hurry up, we shall be late. • Hurry up, or …. • She gave me the jumper, which she had knitted herself. • …; she had…. • Young men by the dozen came up, asking/ and asked her to dance. • The game being over, there was no point in our waiting longer. • … was over, and…. • They have tried, each in a different way. • …., and each has tried ….