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Gene PowerPoint Presentation

Gene

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Gene

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  1. Nucleic Acids • ● Include DNA and RNA • Information storage molecules • They provide the directions for building proteins Gene DNA Nucleic acids RNA Amino acid Protein

  2. Nucleic Acids • ●Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T) • DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid • RNA, ribonucleic acid Nitrogenous base A, G, C, or U Thymine (T) Phosphate group Sugar (deoxyribose) Uracil U Phosphate Phosphate group Base Sugar Sugar ribose

  3. Nucleic Acids ●Each nucleotide has one of the following bases:

  4. Nucleic Acids ●Nucleic Acid Structure Sugar-phosphate backbone Base pair Nucleotide Hydrogen bond Bases a DNA strand polynucleotide b Double helix two polynucleotide strands

  5. Nucleic Acids ●Nucleic Acid Structure

  6. Nucleic Acids DNA Structure

  7. Carbohydrates include Carbohydrates • Small sugar molecules in soft drinks • Monosaccharides & Disaccharides • Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes • Polysaccharides

  8. Monosaccharides are simple sugars Monosaccharides • Glucose, found in sports drinks • Fructose, found in fruit • Honey contains both glucose and fructose Fructose Glucose Isomers

  9. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides form rings Monosaccharides (b) Abbreviated ring structure

  10. A disaccharide is a double sugar Disaccharides • Disaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis Glucose Glucose Maltose

  11. The most common disaccharide is sucrose, common table sugar Disaccharides • It consists of a glucose linked to a fructose • Sucrose is extracted from sugar cane and the roots of sugar beets

  12. Polysaccharides • They are long chains of sugar units • They are polymers of monosaccharides Glucose monomer Starch granules in potato tuber cells (a) Starch Glycogen Granules In muscle tissue (b) Glycogen Cellulose fibril in a plant cell wall Cellulose molecules (c) Cellulose

  13. Lipids • ●Lipidsare: • Large biological molecules that do not include polymers. • Hydrophobic, unable to mix with water. Oil (hydrophobic) Vinegar (hydrophilic)

  14. Lipids • ●FATS • ● Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride • A combination of glycerol and three fatty acids Fatty acid Glycerol (a) A dehydration reaction linking a fatty acid to glycerol (b) A fat molecule with a glycerol “head” and three energy-rich hydrocarbon fatty acid “tails”

  15. Lipids (Fats) ●Unsaturated fatty acids • Have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons • ●Saturated fatty acids • Have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons

  16. Lipids (Fats) TYPES OF FATS Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Margarine INGREDIENTS: SOYBEAN OIL, FULLY HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL AND SOYBEAN OILS, MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, TBHO AND CITRIC ACID ANTIOXIDANTS Trans fats Omega-3 fats Plant oils

  17. Lipids Phospholipids Steroids

  18. Lipids ●STEROIDS Steroids are very different from fats in structure and function. Cholesterol Testosterone A type of estrogen

  19. Biological Molecules