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Aboriginal Peoples of Canada

Aboriginal Peoples of Canada

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Aboriginal Peoples of Canada

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  1. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada CGC 1D/P1

  2. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada First Nations-groups of Canadian aboriginal people who have distinct cultures, history and heritages. Inuit - indigenous people of Canada’s Arctic regions Métis – decedents of the children of aboriginal and French Canadian/ English settlers

  3. Aboriginal Communities in Canada

  4. Canada ! 39.2 26.5 24.9 29.5 21.5 39.7 Newfoundland and Labrador 41.5 32.3 33.4 31.5 30.8 41.9 Prince Edward Island 40.4 24.1 23.4 23.1 9.1 40.6 Nova Scotia ! 41.6 29.5 25.4 37.6 29.2 41.8 New Brunswick 41.2 31.5 27.1 39.8 23.8 41.4 Quebec ! 40.6 31.1 30.2 37.0 20.8 40.7 Ontario ! 38.7 29.7 27.9 32.8 21.2 38.9 Manitoba ! 37.8 23.9 21.2 28.1 21.5 40.4 Saskatchewan ! 38.2 21.7 19.6 25.5 26.9 41.4 Alberta ! 35.8 24.8 22.8 27.1 21.8 36.4 British Columbia ! 40.5 28.1 27.2 29.7 25.0 41.1 Yukon Territory ! 38.4 30.1 30.0 33.9 20.0 41.0 Northwest Territories 31.0 26.0 26.1 29.1 23.3 35.1 Nunavut ! 23.0 20.1 30.5 32.9 20.1 36.8 Average Age of the population reporting a North American Indian identity and non-Aboriginal population, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 Non-aboriginal identity population North American Indian Aboriginal identity population1 Total population Province Métis Inuit 1) Median age is the point at which exactly half of the population is older and half is younger

  5. Contributions of Aboriginal Peoples to Canada’s Early History Chief Joseph Brant helped the British during the American War of Independence Lead defenders of Canada during the War of 1812- Painting of death of Tecumseh, in Chatham-Kent, Ontario Hurons showing Jacques Cartier the cedar cure for scurvy In Canada’s early days, treaties signed between Aboriginal Peoples & the French/ English governments were done as equals.

  6. Canada’s Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples : Reserves When larger numbers of European immigrants arrived in Canada, the British government obtained land for these settlers by signing treaties with the First Nations. In exchange, First Nations were offered small tracks of land called reserves, as well as money or European goods. Dislocation of Native Peoples onto reserve lands

  7. Canada’s Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples: Forced Assimilation Native Residential Schools: children removed from families & community and put into schools where their native language and culture was banned. Ban on Aboriginal Religious Practices Between the late 18th century to early 20th century, Canada’s Aboriginal peoples were forcibly pushed to assimilate into the European-Canadian society.

  8. Canada’s Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples: Forced Assimilation This forced assimilation has lead to generations of people dealing with social problems such as alcoholism, suicide and abuse. In 2008, the Canadian government apologized for it’s role in the residential school system. This lead to the creation of the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which is still ongoing today.

  9. Success of Aboriginal Peoples Settlement of Treaties Influential Aboriginal People (ex. Honourable James K. Bartleman, lieutenant-governor of Ontario) Aboriginal Education

  10. Modern Conflicts with Canada’s Native Peoples: Land claims & Treaties Oka Standoff in 1990 Treaty settlements problems in British Columbia in the 1970’s (much of BC’s lands were never settled through treaties) Caledonia Standoff 2006 - Today

  11. History of Native Treaties CGC 1/P1

  12. What is a Treaty? Treaty: An agreement or arrangement made by negotiation. For example, a contract in writing between two or more political authorities or parties, formally signed by their representatives and duly recognized as binding.

  13. Treaties Chiefs from the Six Nations Reserve reading Wampum belts in which treaty information is written down in graphics made out of beads. Numbered Treaty One with the First Nations of Manitoba Crowd assembled for treaty payment, Fort Rae, Northwest Territories

  14. Copy of a treaty document map and signatures for Penetanguishene, ON

  15. Problems Caused by Treaties • Aboriginal peoples lost enormous amounts of land. • Aboriginal peoples lost their right to govern themselves. • Reserves often not large enough to maintain traditional ways of life, or too remote for economic trade & employment outside of the reserve.

  16. Problems Caused by Treaties • Problems around rights to use natural resources for personal use or income (ex. Fish, timber, minerals and hydro). • Little say about the use/extraction of natural resources that would affect their lands Native road block protest over rights of natural resource use

  17. Peace and Friendship Treaties

  18. Upper Canada Treaties

  19. Robinson-Huron Treaties

  20. Numbered Treaties

  21. Modern Treaties • In the 1960s & 70’s, when there was increasing interest in developing natural resources in northern Canada where treaties had not been signed, the Canadian government announce a change in policy for how treaties with Aboriginal groups would be made. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, right, and Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien, second from right, meet with Nisga'a First Nation leader Frank Calder, centre, on Feb. 7, 1973. The Trudeau government introduced a new land claim policy after a Supreme Court decision ruled the Nisga'a had pre-existing title to their lands based on occupancy and use. (

  22. Modern Treaties • The new policy defined two types of claims: • Comprehensive claims, concerning aboriginal peoples who had never signed a treaty, and • Specific claims, aimed at redressing historical wrongs related to treaties or instances where the government had breached its lawful obligation to a native group.

  23. Modern Treaties • Modern treaties address such matters as: • Ownership and use of lands, waters and natural resources, including the subsurface; • Management of land, waters, and natural resources, including fish and wildlife; • Environmental protection and assessment; • Economic development; • Employment; • Parks and conservation areas; • Self-government The creation of Nunavut is an example of this modern day comprehensive treaty agreement

  24. Modern Treaty Territories

  25. James Bay Treaties