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Building Information Model

Building Information Model

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Building Information Model

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Building Information Model

  2. Goals • Give an introduction to the core concepts of parametric CA(A)D and Building Information Modeling (BIM)

  3. After this session you should … • … have basic ideas about the fundamental concepts of Computer Aided Design and Building Information Modeling (BIM) • … be aware of benefits and problems of BIM

  4. Overview • Introduction to CA(A)D and BIM: • The history • why CAD? • The problems • What’s wrong with today’s CAD? • The promises • What can the application of the BIM paradigm do about it? • The real world • what does actually work today?

  5. Overview • Conventional CA(A)D • Parametric modeling • Adaptable geometry • Adaptable representation • Building Information Model • Information Exchange

  6. Conventional CA(AD)

  7. Goals

  8. This is not music - Semiotics

  9. This is not a building

  10. Ogden-Richards triangle of meaning

  11. Ogden-Richards triangle in CAAD

  12. Communication and Information Exchange Shannons communication model

  13. Means of communication in the AEC domain • Conceptual sketches • Scale models • Oral descriptions (telephone, meeting…) • Written descriptions • Plans, elevations, sections • Details • …

  14. Concept drawings/sketching

  15. Invention of descriptive geometry • History: • 325 BC–265 BC Euclid The Elements • Inventor of the coordinate system, ‘father’ of geometry

  16. Invention of descriptive geometry • History: • 1435 Leone Battista Alberti De pictura • First scientific work describing central and orthogonal perspective

  17. Invention of projective geometry • History: • 1591-1661 Gérard Desargues • Invention of projective geometry

  18. Invention of the modern CAD concept • History: • 1960 Ivan Sutherland SKETCHPAD • 1982 AutoCAD 1.0 introduced on COMDEX Sketchpad demo

  19. Pierre Bézier [1910-1999] • Invention of parametric curves for the use in computer graphics • UNISURF CAD application devd. for Renault on Bézier-curves in the 1960's • “If your system were that good, the Americans would have invented it first!” (Management of Renault to B. in 1971)

  20. CA(A)D packages • The promises: • Let repetitive work be done by the machine • Draw more exactly • Draw quicker • Concentrate on the building instead of the drawing • Get rid of paper by electronic documents • Let ‘intelligent’ functionality take care of certain tasks (automation)

  21. CA(A)D packages • The real world: • CA(A)D in most cases used as 2D pen and paper replacement • Document exchange critical due to lack of standards • Applications are error-prone

  22. Conventional design document creation

  23. Design documents over lifecycle of a building

  24. Nature of the Building and Construction Industry Very fragmented industry • For example, in the EU (statistics 2000): • 11 million jobs, 2 million companies • 93% of companies less than 10 employees • Only 100 companies with more that 2000 employees (source: Arto Kiviniemi)

  25. Communication in the AEC/FM domain

  26. Chuck Eastman • Building Information Model • "Building information modeling integrates all of the geometric model information, the functional requirements and capabilities, and piece behavior information into a single interrelated description of a building project over its lifecycle. It also includes process information dealing with construction schedules and fabrication processes."

  27. Building Lifecycle according to Gielinghs Stages

  28. Communication and Knowledge Exchange Now Then?

  29. Building information model paradigm • Building is designed assembling parametric objects that are related to each other • Every object of the building has a set of properties that can be interpreted in different contexts • Geometrical representations (e.g. drawings) are only one of many aspects. Drawings can be generated dynamically from existing data. • Changes to the model are reflected in all depending documents • Different domains (structural engineering, building physics etc.) have different views on a building model

  30. Parametric Modeling

  31. Conventional drawing of a rectangle P1 : x=1, y=1 P2 : x=6, y=1 P3 : x=6, y=4 P4 : x=1, y=4

  32. Parametric drawing of a rectangle Parameters: (input from modeler) Object type : Rectangle Width : 5 Height : 3 Center Point C : x = 3.5 , y = 2.5 Application calculates explicit geometry: P1 = x = x-coordinate of point C – width / 2, y = y-coordinate of point C – height / 2 P2 = x = x-coordinate of point C + width / 2, y = y-coordinate of point C – height / 2 P3 = x = x-coordinate of point C + width / 2, y = y-coordinate of point C + height / 2 P4 = x = x-coordinate of point C - width / 2, y = y-coordinate of point C + height / 2

  33. Non-parametric building elements • Window as non-parametric geometry: • When size of window is manipulated by scaling, the profiles of the window frame are scaled as well • Each part of the frame has to be adjusted • Many operations are necessary => time and errors • Hint: you can actually use “stretching” in a 2D-case to prevent this

  34. Parametric Windows in BIM / CAAD packages: ADT

  35. Parametric Windows in BIM / CAAD packages: Revit

  36. Parametric Windows in BIM / CAAD packages: Archicad

  37. Custom parametric objects Circumference = number of chairs x 0 .60cm

  38. Image source: ONL

  39. Image source: ONL

  40. Image source: ONL

  41. Image source: ONL

  42. Different representations of parametric objects • Low detail 1:100 • Medium detail 1:50 • High Detail 1:50

  43. Different representations of parametric objects

  44. Different representations of parametric objects

  45. Different representations of parametric objects

  46. Building Information Model

  47. Building information model paradigm

  48. Central Building Information Model

  49. Conversion 2D -> BIM Model CAD 3D + Facilities Management Electrical domain Collision detection HVAC domain Thermal domain Source: German IAI for building Services BIM

  50. Building information model paradigm • Advantages • ‘intelligent’ applications can gather all sorts of information (room sizes, material lists etc.) from a well defined model • Dependent drawings such as sections do not have to be redrawn on changes but automatically adapt