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Nucleus

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Nucleus

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  1. Nucleus The Brain of the CellBy: Bryonna Aldubayan

  2. Definition • Function • Significance • Structure and Components • Nuclear Envelope and Pores • Nucleolus • Nucleoplasm • Mitosis/Meiosis • Malfunctions/Disease Outline

  3. In an atom: The nucleus is the center of an atom which contains the protons and neutrons • In a cell: The nucleus is the structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activity in a eukaryotic cell. Definition

  4. The nucleus regulates all cell activity, growth and reproduction. It controls the cell through protein synthesis. • Protein Synthesis is the process by which amino acids are arranged linearly into proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and various enzymes Function

  5. The nucleus contains DNA which contains coded instructions needed for cell reproduction and also produces proteins that control metabolism and other cell functions. Significance

  6. & • The nucleus is a spherical double membrane organelle. Components The nucleus contains: • Nuclear Envelope • Pores • Nucleolus • Nucleoplasm Structure

  7. The nuclear envelope is a double phospholipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. • Outer membrane • Inner membrane • The nuclear membrane is dotted with thousands of small holes called nuclear pores that allow material to diffuse in and out of the nucleus. & Pores Nuclear Envelope

  8. Small, dense region • Generally located in the center of the nucleus. • It is made of proteins and ribonucleic acids. • It is the location where the assembly of ribosomes begin. Nucleolus

  9. Highly Viscous Liquid • Enveloped by the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope. • Surrounds the chromatins and nucleolus Nucleoplasm

  10. Mitosis Meiosis Replication of only sex cells. • Involves the replication of all eukaryotic cells except that of sex cells. Replication

  11. Mitosis Meiosis Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) Translocation Mosaicism 3 different types • Cancer • Uncontrolled abnormal cell division • Spread through blood stream and lymph system • 100 different types Malfunctions

  12. Cancer

  13. Cancer

  14. Down Syndrome Typical Cell Division

  15. Results in an embryo • 3 copies of chromosome 21 • Sperm or egg fails to separate Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 (nondisjunction)

  16. Chromosome 21 takes place in 1 initial cell division • Mixture of 2 cell types Down Syndrome Mosaic

  17. Down Syndrome

  18. "What Is Cancer?." - National Cancer Institute. N.p., 7 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/what-is-cancer>. • "What Is Down Syndrome?." The National Advocate for People with Down Syndrome Since 1979. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <https://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrhttps://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/What-Is-Down-Syndrome/ome/What-Is-Down-Syndrome/>. • "nucleus Images - Google Search." nucleus Images - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <https://www.google.com/search?q=nucleus&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=r7kmU_rSOKvr0QGf3oCYBA&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=650>. Works Cited