How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
began in Great Britain what economists call – factors of production. That is the basic resources necessary for industrialization land, labor, capital (money), management, and government.
Land - all natural resources Great Britain had a good supply. Coal and iron oreexcellent harbors aided trade many rivers provided water power and inland transportation. good labor supply
Workers - because of changes in agriculture. Capital/money was available. Many British people had grown wealthy from trade and had surplus funds to invest in new businesses.
had management, or those who manage businessesnot considered dishonorable for middle and upper class people to go into business provided a way for lower class people to rise
British government tried to aid commercial interests. passed laws that protected businesses and helped them expand. There was also a large demand for the goods the British produced - overseas coloniestrade opportunities in other countries -could be reached by the merchant ships and British navy.
The Industrial Revolution was preceded and made possible by the Agricultural Revolution. In the 1600’s English farmers began to fence off common lands (lands formerly used by the villagers jointly) into private holdings.
This action continued into the 1700’s, and it had two chief results. 1. large landowners forced small land owners either to become tenet farmers or to give up farming and move into the city. 2. agreement among numerous farmers was not necessary.
One of the first farmers to experiment was JethroTull in the early 1700’s. wasteful practice of scattering seeds by hand on the top of the soil and over a wide area. So he invented seed drill.
plant seeds in the soil in rows. seeds grew better if the weeds were removed from around them, and the soil between the rows was broken up regularlyinvented a cultivator that could be pulled by horses.
Viscount Charles Townshend –waste to leave fields fallow alternating crops of different kinds This is called crop rotation.
Thur11/07How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
Improvements in machinery - farm labor easier and increased production. Iron plows instead of wooden, an American blacksmith e improved the iron plow - three parts so if a part broke it could be replaced without having to buy an entire new plow.
The cotton industry was the first industry in Great Britain to become mechanized. It was the 1st to use automatic machinery to increase production. Cotton cloth had been imported into England since the Middle Ages. It was both popular and expensive.
But when the loom was invented it changed the industry. It is a slow process and to speed it up a clockmaker named John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733.
This was an invention that moved the wool thread more rapidly through the loom. Now the weavers could weave faster than the spinners could produce the thread. The demand for more thread grew, and prizes were offered for a better spinning machine.
James Hargreaves1764 machine called a jenny. A single wheel, turned by hand operated eight spindles by a series of belts. This machine could produce eight times as much thread as a single spinning wheel.
Richard Arkwright made a machine called a water frame because it was driven by water power. The flying shuttle and the jenny were small hand operated and inexpensive. They could be used in people’s homes.
The water frame could not however. It was also more expensive. So, Arkwright opened a spinning mill and within 10 years employed several hundred workers. This was the beginning of the modern factory system.
Samuel Crompton combined the best features of the spinning jenny and the water frame in another machine, the spinning mule.
Fri 11/08How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
Edmund Cartwright - faster weaving process with a power loom in which the shuttle was automatically operated by water power. one person -200 hand-loom operators a method was invented to print colored patterns on cotton cloth.
cotton cloth was now cheaper to produce and sell. As the price went down, the demand increased, and so did the need for more raw cotton. In 1701 England imported 1 million pounds of cotton. In 1802 it imported 60 million pounds. Most of the imported cotton came from the southern United States.
cotton cultivation increased By hand, one person could clean only one pound of cotton a day. Then Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. work of 50 peoplecotton center of world
machines driven by water power. better than human, animal or wind power, but it did have its drawbacks. factory - located by a stream or river; preferably near a waterfall or a place where a dam could be built.
In 1712, Thomas Newcomen produced the 1st successful steam engine.
In the 1760’s James Watt invented an improved steam engine. The Watt’s engine was adapted to run the new spinning and weaving machines.
Many early steam engines blew up because the iron used to build them was too weak to withstand the high pressures of steam. A stronger, harder metal was needed. This was steel, which is iron with some of the impurities removed.
But the process was slow and expensive. Then in the 1850’s an American – William Kelly and an Englishman – Henry Bessemer, discovered a new way of making steel. The Bessemer Process, as it became called, reduced the cost so much that steel became what it is today, the basic material of our industrial civilization.
Some new inventions and processes had important byproducts – that is secondary products that result from manufacturing something else.
By the 1850’s gas was used to light homes all over the western world. Another new industry was the production of rubber. In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered a process of curing the rubber to make it more elastic and usable.
This method became known as vulcanizing. In the 1850’s we learned how to use crude oil. We learned it could be used to produce paraffin for candles and lubricating oil for machines, and kerosene for lighting and heating.
3/11How did the Industrial Revolution affect the world?
FACTORY SYSTEM The factory system changed working and living conditions. The introduction of machinery changed the way work was done. It made work easier to do. Instead of spending several years as an apprentice learning a trade, a person could learn to work a machine in a few days.
Employers now looked for people who could be taught a few simple tasks. They preferred to hire younger people rather than older skilled people, because they were not set in their ways of doing something, and would work for less money. In the early factories most employees were children, and adults under the age of 30.
Factory owners became known as capitalists, and they paid their workers wages. In the artisan system a worker was paid for the product he completed.
Now workers were paid by the hour. Wages were determined by several factors. 1st – employers wanted to produce goods as cheaply as possible; so wages were set in relation to other costs of production.
2nd – wages were low when there were many people available to compete for jobs. They were higher when there were fewer people and several jobs to be filled.
3rd – wages often depended on what people could earn at other kinds of work. For example early textile factories paid young women a little more than they would have made as a household servant to attract the workers.
4th – wages took into account the needs of a worker and their family. The wages of adult men were higher than adult women; because men were thought to be the main money maker in the family. Women were just considered as “adding a little something” to their husbands wage; even if in reality she were not married.
rules to follow. arrive to work on time. given a set time to eat lunch and to take breaks. factory workers worked 14 hour days 6 days a week. The job was monotonous. The factories were uncomfortable places. They were noisy, dirty and poorly ventilated.
steamy hot in the summer and cold in the winter. machines had no safety devices no accident insurance or workers comp. An injured worker was out of luck. 5 year olds to be employed in cotton mills and mines. Women and children who worked in coal mines pulled carts through tunnels that were too low for donkeys to get through.
Workers living conditions were not much better. cramped crowded tenements or apartments. 12 people lived in one room. As late as 1840, one out of every 8 working class families in Manchester, England - cellar.
little furniture; children shared the same bed. Food was poor. Fresh meat and milk was scarce. City workers usually ate bread, tea or coffee, potatoes and few other vegetables. Poor diets gave people diseases such as rickets – a bone disease caused by a vitamin deficiency.
3/14How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
increased the Middle Class. bankers, merchants and manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, professors, engineers owned property and could afford servants, to eat well, and enjoy some comfort.
This class was educated. Their children went to school, and were trained for good jobs. Life in the middle class contrasted greatly with life in the working class. They lived in different atmospheres, dressed differently. Workers wore work shirts, while middle class wore white shirts.
Working class women wore plain skirts and blouses while middle class women wore lace and frills. The gap between the two groups widened and became noticeable to anyone in the city.
The industrial revolution also brought about a need for better roads for transportation. Raw materials had to be carried to factories and finished products to market. A Scottish engineer came up with a way to build new roads. First came a roadbed of large stones, then layers of smaller stones.
These roads were called macadam roads. This method is still used today, except we add a layer of asphalt on top now. Great Britain also had lots of rivers that could be used for transportation. Some canals had been dug and engineers began using locks – gates that regulate the level and flow of the water. From 1760-1850 Great Britain built several canals.
Canals were a quick form of transportation. In 1814 George Stephenson perfected a moving engine, the locomotive. propelled by steam and moved on rails. 1829, The Rocket traveled from Liverpool to Manchester at a speed of 29 miles an hour. Networks of railroads were soon built across the country.
Improvements continued; steel rails, air brakes, more comfortable coaches for passengers, special cars for freight, made railroad travel faster, safer and more comfortable.
Robert Fulton adapted the steam engine to a ship. He began the first successful steamboat service. His boat was called the Clermont, and was launched on the Hudson River in 1807. It made regular trips between New York City and Albany.
In 1838 the Great Western, a ship that operated on steam alone, crossed the Atlantic in 15 days, less than half the time it took to sail the distance. Regular steam boat traffic across the Atlantic was developed by Samuel Cunard. He started a shipping company that used ships made of iron and steel instead of wood.
There were other advances in technology during the industrial revolution. One was with electricity.
For one thing, no one could figure out a way to provide a steady flow of electric current. But in around 1800, an Italian named Alessandro Volta was able to build the first battery, a devise that provided a steady current of electricity.
Then Andre Ampere, a Frenchman, worked out the principles governing the magnetic effect of an electric current. Their work was used by Samuel Morse in the US. He sent electricity over a wire to a machine and uses a series of dots and dashes created the Morse Code.
3/15How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
As the Industrial Revolution spread to other countries a need for better communication products grew. An important development occurred in the 1870’s.
Alexander Graham Bell, an American, patented telephone in 1876; then in 1895, an Italian inventor, GuglielmoMarconi developed a way to send messages through space without wires. Marconi invented instruments for sending and receiving these radio waves, as they became known.
His wireless telegraph soon proved itself valuable for ship-to-shore communication. In 1901 he sent the first wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean.
As industry grew in the 1800’s manufacturers were always on the lookout for new and better sources of power. In the 1870’s a tremendous new power source – electricity was developed. Electric light bulbs were first produced in 1845, but they burned out in a very short time.
1879 Thomas Edison made a bulb that glowed for two days before burning out. After several more experiments lighting by electricity replaced gas light.
The industry grew rapidly as waterfalls (like Niagara Falls) were used to run hydroelectric power plants. Electricity could be sent long distances over wires. But the electric motor had a major limit. It had to be connected to its power supply; so it was not very useful to moving vehicles.
Then an engine was invented that could use a portable fuel supply such as gasoline or oil. It was the internal combustion engine because the combustion or burning of fuel took place inside a closed cylinder.
In 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea built the 1st successful gasoline-driven automobile in the US. Three years later Henry Ford produced his first automobile. But Ford will invent the assembly-line and that made his automobile more well-known.
Adam Smith Smith was a professor from Scotland who defended the idea of “free markets” in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations. He said government should not regulate business. He based his arguments on the three natural laws of economics:
1. Law of self-interest: people work for their own good2. Law of competition: competition forces people to make better products3. Law of supply and demand: enough goods will be produced at the lowest price to meet the demands of the market
Karl Marx Marx was a German journalist who introduced the world to a new radical type of socialism called Marxism. He outlined his ideas in a book he wrote with Friedrich Engels titled The Communist Manifesto.
Marx and Engels said that classes had been split into warring classes of the “haves” and the have-nots”. The “haves” being the employer which they called the bourgeoisie and the “have-nots” being the workers called the proletariat.
Both men made the claim that the Industrial revolution made the owners richer while the workers became poorer and would eventually get tired of this and overthrow their employer.
Communism is a form of complete socialism in which all means of production- all land, mines, factories, railroads and businesses would be owned by the people. no private property and good and services would be shared equally. The Communist Manifesto - by the 1900s countries such as Russia, China and Cuba
Mon 3/18EQ – How did the rise of Nationalism change Europe?
RISE OF NATION STATES In 1861, Wilhelm I - Germany pushing for reforms that the parliament would not give him money to carry out. reforms were supported by the wealthy land owning class of Prussia called “Junkers”. chose Otto von Bismarck to be his prime minister.
Bismarck became a master of what is called realpolitik. This term means politics of reality which is tough and leaves no room for idealism. Bismarck got the king’s approval and declared that he was going to rule without consent of the parliament or a legal budget which was a violation of the constitution.
In 1864, Prussia and Austria united to take some territory to begin the expansion under Bismarck. Bismarck now stirred border conflicts with Austria starting the Seven Weeks War. With victory in the Seven Weeks War, Prussia now controlled the northern part of Germany.
By 1867, the remaining states of the north joined the North German Confederation due to the nationalistic feel that was running through the northern part of the country.
The Franco-Prussian War was fabricated by Bismarck who was a whiz at manufacturing incidents. By 1867, there were only a few southern German states who were not unified. They did not want to be unified because the northern states were Protestant and the southern states were Catholic.
Bismarck - impression that the French ambassador had insulted the Prussian king. France reacted by declaring war In September of 1870, the Prussian army poured into northern France and defeated the French. This was the final piece to the unification of Germany and the southern parts of Germany accepted Prussian rule from the strong nationalism they now felt.
actions of Bismarck direct effect on the start of World War 1 - 40 years later. After the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck saw France as a threat so he started to form alliances. France would not be a threat if they had no one to ally with. Bismarck allies with Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia
Rise of Japan under Emperor Meiji After 600 years of rule under military dictatorships of the shogun’s, Mutsuhito took control of the government. He chose the name “Meiji” which means “enlightened rule”, which lasted 45 years.
Meiji realized that the best way to counter Western influence was to modernize. He sent diplomat’s to Europe and North America to study western ways. They then chose what ways of the west they thought were the best and adapted them to fit into their own country.
Examples:Germany’s strong central gov’t- used their constitution as a model Military- admired Germany’s discipline and Britain’s navy- tried to copy themEducation- adopted American universal public education, required all students to attend school
Japan also got involved in industrialization. In 1872, they built their first RR track. By 1914, they had more than 7,000 miles of track. Coal major resource. tea and silk factories giving the Japanese unique products to trade. Shipbuilding also made them competitive with the West.
3/19/13EQ: How did Imperialism play a role in WWI?
Reaction’s to Foreign Domination Russo-Japanese War After Japan became industrialized they became more imperialistic. first attacked China and won. This victory changed the balance of power in the East. Russia and Japan major powers - bitter enemies. Japan offered recognize Russia’s rights in Manchuria if Russia stayed out of Korea. Russia refused
Japan led a surprise attack on Russian warships off the coast on Manchuria starting the Russo-Japanese War. Japan drove troops out of Korea, captured Russia’s Pacific fleet and destroyed Russia’s Baltic fleet that had sailed all the way around Africa to help out in the war.
In 1905, both sides began peace negotiations with Theodore Roosevelt drafting the treaty. The treaty was signed on a ship in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The Treaty of Portsmouth gave Japan the captured territories and forced Russia to stay out of Manchuria and Korea.
Young Turks The Young Turks – wanted to restore the Ottoman Empire. The movement was against the monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and favored a re-installation of the first constitution of Turkey
They established the second constitutional era in 1908 with what would become known as the Young Turk Revolution. Established a Republic.
Many Young Turks were not only active in the political arena, but were also artists, administrators, scientists, etc. The term "Young Turks" has subsequently come to signify any groups or individuals inside an organization who want change and seek prominence and power.
BOXER REBELLION The United States had just introduced the Open Door Policy in China to protect their trade interest and the Chinese from being colonized by other countries. Many Chinese were humiliated by the loss of power and called for sweeping changes.
Guangxu introduced measures to modernize China but many saw this as an attack on their power. They encouraged the Dowager Empress to take over control again and she acted quickly by Guangxu arrested.
Frustrated by this situation, many turned to violence. frustrated by two things, the privileges foreigners had and Chinese Christians for accepting a foreign religion. They formed a secret organization that soon came to be known as the Boxers - against foreign influence.
In the spring of 1900, the Boxers descended on Beijing and surrounded the European section of town and held it under siege for months. In August, a multinational force marched on Beijing and quickly defeated the Boxers. But sense of Nationalism emerged.
Imperialism in Africa and Asia British Policies in Africa The Zulu nation under chief Shaka used highly disciplined soldiers to try and defeat the British. His successors were unable to keep the nation together against the superior British. The Zulu used mainly spears and shields to fight the British who used guns. But, the Zulu’s were able to remain free of British rule until 1887.
In South Africa, the Dutch were first to settle/trade. They became known as Boers. The British take over the Cape Colony permanently in the early 1800s. They soon clashed over British policy on land and slaves. Diamonds and gold were soon discovered in southern Africa.
A war between the British and Boers broke out into what is known as the Boer War. Under both Dutch and British rule, South Africa experienced racial division. A minority of whites ruled the majority (who were black) under a system known as Apartheid.