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WWI : “The Great War” 1914-1918 PowerPoint Presentation
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WWI : “The Great War” 1914-1918

WWI : “The Great War” 1914-1918

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WWI : “The Great War” 1914-1918

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  1. WWI : “The Great War” 1914-1918 APUSH Chapter 30: The War to End the War

  2. “4 M.A.I.N.” Causes • 1. Militarism • 2. Alliances • 3. Imperialism • 4. Nationalism

  3. 1. Militarism • Is the Glorification of war • Nations wanted “bigger armies” and • More destructive weapons

  4. 2. Alliances • 1. Alliance Systems: defense agreements between nations • 2. “Entente Cordiale” = Friendly understanding between 2 nations

  5. 3. Imperialism • Nations competed for: • 1. new territories • 2. Raw materials • 3. new economic markets

  6. 4. Nationalism • Extreme Patriotism • Who has the biggest army (militarism)? • The most foreign territory (imperialism)?

  7. Background Info… • Austria- Hungary • Took over Bosnia- Herzegovina in1908 • Serbia claimed territory was theirs

  8. Immediate Cause WWI • The Match: • The Assassination of the • Heir to Austria-Hungarian Throne • Franz Ferdinand

  9. Immediate Cause WWI • Ferdinand was murdered 1914 • In Sarajevo (Bosnian Capital) • Austria-Hungarians Held Serbians responsible for death

  10. Austria-Hungary Declared war on Serbia, 1914 • Began as a “regional” Conflict between • Austria – Hungary vs. Serbia

  11. How Does a “Local” Conflict Transform itself into a World War? • ***

  12. Alliances!!! • 1. Russia • Had to support • Serbia • Why?

  13. Alliances!!! • Czar Nicholas II of Russia • Also Declared war against: • Austria-Hungary+ • Germany , 1914

  14. Why Germany? • Germany had an alliance with Austria- Hungary • In turn, Germany • Declared war on Russia + France, 1914 • Why France?

  15. Germany, 1914 • Invaded Belgium • (who was neutral) • Belgium asked • Great Britain for help

  16. Britain • Declared war on Germany…

  17. From Local Conflict to WWI • WHAT BEGN AS LOCAL CONFLICT • Turned into WORLD WAR I • “ALLIANCES” dragged the entire European continent into the war • “IMPERIALISM” dragged foreign territories into war

  18. The Triple Entente /Allied Powers 1. Serbia 2. Russia 3. Great Britain 4. France 5. U.S. (1917) And all foreign colonies The Central Powers 1. Austria-Hungary 2. Germany 3 .Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 4. Bulgaria And all foreign colonies Sides & Alliances

  19. “War of Attrition” • The Wearing down of the enemy through constant attacks • Introduction of “Trench Warfare”

  20. Trench Warfare • “Western Front” • Battle line stretching 500 miles • From Switzerland to North Sea

  21. The Trench Coat

  22. The Wrist Watch

  23. “No Man’s Land” • point: to run across “no man’s land” to enemy trench • Mines, barbed Wire , soldiers protect area in front of trench

  24. New Weapons Introduced • 1. Machine guns • 2. heavy artillery • 3. Poison Gas • 4. Tanks • 5. U-Boats (submarines)

  25. “Flaming Coffins”/ Planes • Noisy, “crude vehicles” • Pilot sat directly above fuel tank • Morse Code Transmitter • No brakes…

  26. German U-BOATS • Early Submarines • U-Boats fired at passenger and freight vessels beginning in 1915

  27. American Neutrality • U.S. Remained neutral Between 1914-1917 • President Wilson issued Policy of Neutralityduring the early years of the war.

  28. From Neutrality to Involvement What caused the U.S. to become involved in WWI?

  29. 1. Sinking of the Lusitania • 1. German U-Boat fired & sank the Lusitania, 1915 • British passenger liner • 1,200 lives lost, 130 Americans

  30. The Lusitania – the ship that launched American involvement in WWI

  31. 1.The Sinking of the Lusitania • Caused outrage in American Public • Germany claimed Ship was carrying American weapons and supplies to Great Britain

  32. 2. “Zimmerman “ Telegram • British intercepted a telegram • Sent to German Ambassador in Mexico • If Mexico forms an alliance with Germany, Germany will help it regain the Southwest territories

  33. 3. German Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic off the coast of Great Britain • Defiance of right to free trade • The war disrupted trade, worldwide economies, and businesses

  34. 4. Pro-Allied Propaganda • British reminded U.S. of their British Heritage • French reminded U.S. they helped them during American Revolution

  35. 5. American Idealism • Which is better? • Central Powers dominating Europe? OR a collection of smaller democracies ?

  36. 6. American Security • Was the U.S. safe? • Issues of security concerned the nation

  37. U.S. Entered WWI on… • April 2, 1917 • American President Woodrow Wilson asked congress to Declared war on Germany and allies

  38. President Woodrow Wilson 1. accused the Germans of violating freedom of the seas, killing innocent Americans, and interfering with Mexico 2. the U.S. should become involved “to make the world safe for democracy”

  39. U.S. In Preparation For War:Military Expansion • 1. National Defense Act , 1916 – expanded the federal army from 90,000 to 175,000 • 2. Naval Construction Act , 1916 – authorized $500-$600 million for 3 year expansion program

  40. U.S. In Preparation For War:Military Expansion • 3. Selective Service Act, 1917 - • “conscription” • All men 21- 30 (later 18-45) • Must register for draft

  41. U.S. In Preparation for the War • 4. Commission on Training Camp Activities • Presented films, lectures, to new recruits • Topics: Dangers of alcohol & prostitution abroad • IQ Tests – reinforced racial & ethnic stereotypes

  42. Mobilizing a Nation • 1. Lever Fuel and Fuel Control Act, 1917 • Herbert Hoover’s “Food Administration” • Purpose: To reduce civilian use of foodstuffs

  43. Mobilizing a Nation • Voluntary compliance instead of food rationing • Limited consumption of meat, sugar, energy • Housewives monitored consumption: • “meatless Mondays”, “Wheatless Wednesdays”

  44. Mobilizing A Nation • 12,000 Native Americans Served– American Expeditionary Force • 260,000 African Americans served (excluded from Marines)

  45. The War Industries Board, 1917 Most important mobilization agency • (WIB) could: • 1. Allocate raw materials, 2. tell manufacturers what to produce, • 3. order construction of new plants • 4. fix prices with approval of the President

  46. New Labor Force Needed • Foreign immigration was closed off • 4 million men at war • Created labor shortage • Women, African Americans, ethnic minorities encouraged to enter industries

  47. “ The Great Migration” • Over 400,000 African Americans • Moved from South to North and West • Between 1910-1930 number of African Americans in Northern States tripled

  48. Women and WWI • At first: • Helped organize war bonds, war-relief drives • Conserved foodstuffs, war related materials • Supported Red Cross • Joined Army Nurse Corps

  49. Women & “War Work” • 1 million women went to work • Available jobs:loading docks, farms, railway crews, armament industries, machine shops, steel & lumber mills, chemical plants