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  1. SUGAR

  2. We Need Sugar • Sugars and starches supply energy to the body in the form of glucose • Glucose = only energy source for red blood cells • Glucose = preferred energy source for the brain, central nervous system, placenta, and fetus.

  3. We Need Sugar • Natural sugars (1 source of glucose) are found in milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, and refined sugar • We don’t need to worry about natural sugars. We’re supposed to be eating some sugar (for glucose) and natural sources of sugar should be the majority of sugar we eat

  4. We Need Sugar • Choose carbohydrates wisely • Foods in the basic food groups that provide natural sugars — fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk — are also important sources of many nutrients • Eating plenty of these foods, within a calorie-controlled diet promotes health and reduces chronic disease risk

  5. We Don’t Need ADDED Sugars • It’s ADDED sugars we have to worry about, and they are everywhere! • Use of added sugars have continued to rise in the American diet • How many of you drink soft drinks? • Consumption of soft drinks containing sugar has risen 135% since 1977 • Soft drinks are the #1 source of sugars in the diet


  7. We Don’t Need ADDED Sugars • The greater the consumption of foods and beverages containing large amounts of added sugars, the more difficult it is to consume enough nutrients without gaining weight • Consumption of added sugars provides calories while providing little, if any, of the essential nutrients we need

  8. Natural vs. Added Sugar • Your body’s response to sugars does not depend on whether they are naturally present in a food or added to the food • However, added sugars supply calories but few or no nutrients

  9. Too Much Sugar Is Harmful • If used in excess: • Sugary foods can replace nutritious foods • High-sugar diets can promote weight gain • Sugar contributes to dental caries (cavities) • High-sugar diets can be a factor in excessive insulin production in some people • High-sugar diets contribute to unhealthful blood lipids (cholesterol – heart disease)

  10. Too Much Sugar Is Harmful

  11. Sugar = Hyper? • There is no evidence that sugar causes: • “Hyper” behavior in children • Criminal behavior – Twinkie defense

  12. How Much Sugar? • Daily intake per person in the U.S.: 31 tsp. of sugar!!! • Average of 25 5 lb bags of sugar per year!!! • That equals 5 oz., or 500 calories/day just from sugar!!! x 25

  13. Sugar Guidelines • Most health organizations recommend no more than 10% of calories from sugar • In a 2000 calorie diet, no more than 200 calories (or 50 grams) should come from sugar • Average 20 oz. soda has how many grams? • 65 grams!

  14. Names For Sugar • Sugar, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Brown Sugar, Corn Syrup, Fructose, Honey, Dextrose, Invert Sugar, Molasses, Maple Sugar, Levulose, Turbinado Sugar, Raw Sugar, Confectioner’s Sugar, Corn Syrup Solids, Maltose, Maltodextrin, Evaporated Cane Juice, Rice Syrup, Fruit Juice Concentrate, Lactose …etc.

  15. Foods Containing Sugar • Soft drinks, cookies, candy, cereals, juice drinks, cake and cookie mixes, Snapple, sports drinks, packaged baked goods, jams and jellies, cocoa, lemonade, Kool-Aid mixes, toaster pastries, pasta sauces, peanut butter, soup, taco seasoning mix, salad dressing……………..

  16. Ingredient Labels • Ingredients are listed in order by highest concentration first • Stay clear of foods that include sugar as one of the main ingredients (first few ingredients) Look at Coke ingredients! Read it from the bottom up – it’s caffeinated, flavored, colored, sugarwater!

  17. High Fructose Corn Syrup • We have increased portion sizes and many of our favorite foods are filled with empty calories, often with additives such as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) • From 1970 to 2005 alone, our intake of high-fructose corn syrup rose more than per person, paralleling our skyrocketing rates of obesity 10,000%

  18. High Fructose Corn Syrup • HFCS is used in so many products from ketchup to soda to bread to candy to yogurt to cereal to Tater Tots — because it's so cheap! • It's so cheap because American taxpayers subsidize industrial corn growers, to the tune of nearly $5 billion a year! (Imagine what else we could do with that money.) Why do you think it’s so cheap?

  19. High Fructose Corn Syrup • HFCS can inhibit your body's ability to use leptin, the naturally occurring hormone that signals when you're satiated • In some people, it can actually convince us we're starving, even when we've eaten our fill • Imagine that: We're spending $5 billion annually to trick our own minds into eating more!!!

  20. HFCS Is Not Good For You! • HFCS is composed of 55% fructose. When consumed in excess, fructose is readily converted to fat in your liver, and it has been shown to raise triglyceride levels and decrease insulin sensitivity — risk factors for heart disease and diabetes • Fructose is fine in small doses (it's one of the natural sugars found in fruit), but Americans are consuming it in higher doses than at any time in human history

  21. Alternative (Artificial) Sweeteners • Unlike sugar, these are not carbohydrates • They are not nutritive sweeteners like sugar (they provide no (or very little) calories) • What’s the tradeoff? No calories, but… • Controversy over the safety of using artificial sweeteners. They are approved for use, but still may not be safe for consumption.

  22. Artificial Sweeteners (cont.) • Saccharin (“Sweet and Low”) • The oldest artificial sweetener • Thought to be a cancer risk

  23. Artificial Sweeteners (cont.) • Aspartame (“Nutrasweet”) • Widely used in soft drinks • Can’t be used in baking • 200 times sweeter than sugar • Potentially harmful • Cancer risk?

  24. Artificial Sweeteners (cont.) • Sucralose (“Splenda”) • Made from sugar, but not absorbed by the body because it has been chemically modified • Can be used in cooking and baking (recipes need to be modified) • Relatively new – is it safe?

  25. Artificial Sweeteners (cont) • Stevia • A South American herb • Sold as an herbal supplement • Recently approved by FDA (1/09) for use as a “natural sweetener” (PureVia and Truvia) • Is it safe?

  26. Sugar Replacers • Sugar Alcohols replace sugar in foods • Sugar alcohols occur naturally in fruits and vegetables • They still provide calories (they are nutritive), but less than a sugar-sweetened food • Identified by “ol” at the end of the name: • Sorbitol • Mannitol • Xylitol

  27. Sugar Replacers (continued) • Sugar alcohols are often used in sugarless gum and breath mints because they do not cause dental caries and provide fewer calories than sugar

  28. Sugar Replacers (cont.) • However, they are not completely absorbed by your body, so side effects of sugar alcohol include: • Gas • Abdominal discomfort • Diarrhea

  29. Visualize • Let’s look at some visualizations: • Beverage sugar stacks: •

  30. Eggo Waffles, 2 Waffles, plain • Sugars, total: 2g • Calories, total: 180 • Calories from sugar: 8 • 2 Waffles, with 1/4 cup Syrup • Sugars, total: 35g • Calories, total: 380 • Calories from sugar: 140

  31. 12 oz (355 ml) Can • Sugars, total: 39g • Calories, total: 140 • Calories from sugar: 140 • 20 oz (590 ml) Bottle • Sugars, total: 65g • Calories, total: 240 • Calories from sugar: 240 • 1 Liter (34 oz) Bottle • Sugars, total: 108g • Calories, total: 400 • Calories from sugar: 400