Reformation Continues Zwinglism, Calvinism, Anabaptists
Luther’s Break from Church Teachings • “by faith alone” • States that salvations comes not from good works but through personal faith in a merciful God. • “By Scripture Alone” • The true teachings are in the Bible, not in invented Church doctrines. • “Priesthood of All Believers” • You are your own priest. People can have own relationship with God without a mediator.
#The movement to break away from the Church spread to Switzerland. • Thirteen cantons (small states) joined under a Diet • Independent • No powerful princes • More urban based #Why would it spread there?
Zwinglianism #Ulrich Zwingli • While Luther was gaining influence in northern HRE, Zwingli was doing same in south. #Similarities to Luther: Biblical basis, salvation by faith alone, rejection of celibacy, embrace of marriage, education, simplistic worship.
Differences from Luther • Emphasized independence of individual believer #De-emphasized importance of clergy #Made a tribunal of clergy/officials to enforce discipline. Could excommunicate. Informers. • Little faith in the individual upkeep of morals • Long church services
Main Difference #Consubstantiation vs. Transubstantiation • Write down what Luther and Zwingli disagreed on about Communion • Disagreement set precedent for further splintering of Protestantism
Anabaptists: Radical Reformers • “rebaptizers”—nickname from enemies # Believed in adult baptism instead of infant baptism # Believed in separation of church and state. • The “elect” should not participate in government • Pacifist • One Anabaptist group—Melchiorites—gained control of the city of Munster, abolished private property, burned all books but Bible, were polygamous and waited for second coming. • Until Lutherans and Catholics massacred them
Calvinism # Led by John Calvin # Influenced by Martin Luther but developed his own views • France was Catholic • So he fled to Switzerland. Why? • Settled in Geneva, Switzerland in 1536.
Principles of Calvinism # Predestination: based on the idea that God knew and willed in advance all things that happened, including who would be saved or not. • The Elect—a chosen few • They would know they were the elect because they would be able to pursue a saintly life • If you did not behave to the community’s expectations you were cast out. #EMPHASIS ON PERFECTION made it different from other Protestant movements.
Theocracy # Geneva was a theocracy because Calvinism believed that religious leaders should be political leaders. # No separation of church and state. • A body of minsters and devout laymen ruled the church (presbyteries) and a council of ministers and pious laymen (elders) ruled the town. # Rules: No dancing, instruments, cards, alcohol, swearing. Constant self-examination and Bible study. • Required public confession of sins.
Simple, long church services focused on sermons • No colorful attire for ministers • Images representing saints, Mary, or Christ were prohibited • Persecuted religious dissenters
TULIP • T—Total depravity • U—Unconditional Election • L—Limited atonement • I—Irresistible grace • P—Perseverance of the saints.
Calvinism Spreads • European reformers traveled to Geneva to study because it was considered a “model community” of Christians. • Visitors returned to homes with Calvinism. • Huguenots—French Calvinists. Remained a minority among Catholic majority. Supported by members of the nobility. • Presbyterians—Scotland Calvinists. Leader: John Knox. • 1560—Presbyterianism became official religion • England—Calvinists called Puritans.