It’s Features… • The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. • Overall, the land slopes from the high Altay Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. • Mongolia is high, cold, and dry. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most precipitation falls.
It’s Features… 2 • The country has an average elevation of 1,580 meters. • The landscape includes one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes (Lake Khövsgöl), many salt lakes, marshes, sand dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain glaciers. • Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes.
Resources and Land Use • Natural resources: petroleum, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold • Land use:arable land: 1%permanent crops: 0%permanent pastures: 80%forests and woodland: 9%other: 10% (1993 est.) • Irrigated land: 800 km² (1993 est.)
Many different nomadic empires ruled Mongolia. • In 1206 Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire. • The Mongol Empire was the biggest History has ever seem. • In 1368 after the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Mongols continued their earlier patterns of internal conflicts • Mongolia came under Buddhism influences in the 16th 17th centre • After 17th centre, most of Mongolia was rules by the Qing Dynasty. • Mongolia declared independence after the Qing Dynasty collapsed.
But it struggled until 1921 to have in fact it’s independence • In 1945 it gained international reorganization. • As a result of that, Russia and Soviet put a lot of influence in Mongolia. • Mongolian People’s Republic was declared in1924 • At this time, Mongolian politics was the same as Soviet’s.
Chinese and Russian Occupation • In 1911, Mongolia declared independence, around the same time as the Republic of China was established. China laid claim to Mongolia, stating it as their territory. • In 1921, Russian Explorer Baron Ungern defeated the Chinese in Ulaanbaatar, the Mongolian Capital and went on to occupy the country.
Communism in Mongolia • Unsettled by the menaces of China, Japan, and White Russia, a revolutionary group, led by Damdin Sukhbaatar, fought for independence, with the aid of Bolshevik Russia. On the 11th of July, 1921, Mongolia once again declared independence.
Country Information • Economic System: Modern and Traditional Systems. • Political System: Democratic • Population: 3,086,918 • Language: KhalkhaMongol
Festivals and holidays • Naadam Festival- 3 main sports • Wrestling, horse riding and archery • This is celebrated all over Mongolia • TsagaanSar- the “ white moon” • Celebrate the lunar new year • It is a tradition to climb the scared mountain on the first day of the new year • Then celebrate with family and friends
Religion • Shamanism- is a “technique of ecstasy” • this is practiced in tribal cultures/ indigenous people • This is when the spirit leave the body and communicate among spirit helpers for knowledge, power and healing.
Buddhism- Mongolians have been Buddhist since the 16th century • This is based up on the Tibetan Buddhist teachings • Muslim is also practiced and is about 6% of the community
The Mongolian Ger • Is the home of Mongolian nomads • It is made out of wood and is covered in felt
Mongolian Music • Khoomi singing: composed of high pitches • Known as throat singing and hard to understand • Morin Huur/ Horse Head fiddle- traditional music • Originated from the Chinese two stringed fiddle
Long Song: • Nomadic art form • Can be sung without instruments • Made up of melodies about nature, family, animals and stories
Mongolian Culture is known for it’s hospitality. The Mongolian community traditionally has a pastoral nomadic lifestyle. Because of the climates, and the seasons, the nomadic lifestyle, and agriculture are very important. They raise five types of different animals. • Animals – goat, sheep, cattle (Yaks), camels and horses. They animals help provide dairy products, transportation, wool, and food for the Mongolian Community. Out of all the animals mentioned, the horse is the most important.
Continued…. • In Mongolian culture, the people cherish, and take very good care of their horses. The horse is very useful for transportation and sports. The horse is used for parties, and traditional festivals.
Daily Responsibilities • In Mongolia, there are daily routines, that people follow. “Traditionally, men take care of the horses arid, the herds and make saddles, harnesses, and weapons. In addition, they hunt to supplement the traditional diet of dairy products. Women also milk cows, goats and mares (the national drink is airag - fermented mare's milk). Despite their enterprise, however, Mongolians are not self-sufficient.” The women also cook, take care of the children, and make different clothes. Mongolians also trade with other civilizations for grain, rice, silk, cotton, and tea.
It is the 18th biggest country in the world, but has only 2.3 million people. • One of the first dinosaur skeletons was found in Mongolia’s desert. • 70% of the population are under 35 years old. • The dictator Dschinghis Khan is the most famous Mongol.
What region does your country belong to? • Mongolia belongs to region of Asia. • What makes your country stand out as a country? • Most Mongolians are Tibetan Buddhists Lamas • Many Mongolians were nomadic people until as late as the mid-20th century. • What makes your country similar to other countries? • Mongolia has a democracy. • What makes your country different from other countries? • Mongolia is most landlocked and isolated countries in the world
Sources • http://www.mongolian-ways.com/culture.htm#4 • http://www.bookrags.com/research/mongoliaeconomic-system-ema-04/ • Catalonia, Miguel Alonso. "Mongolian Culture - Music, Festivals, Religion." Mongolian Ways - Outdoor and Cultural Adventure Travel in Mongolia. 2007. Web. 13 Feb. 2011. <http://www.mongolian-ways.com/culture.htm>.