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Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protective Actions

Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protective Actions

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Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protective Actions

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  1. Title of Liberty God, our religion, In memory of our our peace, our and freedom, and children wives and our Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protective Actions Paul Hubenthal

  2. Overview • Plan, Plan, Plan • Nuclear • Biological • Chemical • Sheltering

  3. Have a Plan • Designate primary/secondary evacuation routes • Designate a meeting place (cell phones wont work) • Determine what to do with your pets • Write down and share your plan • Create a disaster preparedness kit • 3-7 gal of water per person • Non-perishable food (chocolate) • First aid kit • Battery-powered radio (news and announcements) • Flashlights • Extra batteries

  4. Have a Plan (cont) • Create a disaster preparedness kit (cont) • Cash (ATMs wont work) • Important documents (identification) • Pet care items • Any other special items you may need (medication)

  5. Types of Nuclear Radiation A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. • Nuclear blast energy distribution • Radiation hazards

  6. Before a Nuclear Blast • Make list of potential shelters near home, work & school • Shelters include basements or the windowless center area of middle floors in high-rise buildings, as well as subways and tunnels.
 • During periods of increased threat increase your disaster supplies to be adequate for up to two weeks • There are two kinds of shelters - blast and fallout. • Blast shelters are specifically constructed to offer some protection against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat, and fire • Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed for protecting against fallout; any protected space, provided that the walls and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by fallout particles

  7. Nuclear Protective Actions 3 factors for protection from radiation and fallout are 1) distance, 2) shielding, and 3) time Initial Actions • Find shelter providing greatest protection (underground) • Use window barriers and shielding to improve protection for buildings or shelters • Upon seeing nuclear flash, seek protection from blast wave, heat & flying debris (Don’t look at flash or fireball) • If detonation occurs without warning, immediately drop to prone position. Tightly cover face with both hands. • Don’t move until initial blast wave & any reflected blast waves have passed (could take 30 secs or more for blast wave to hit)

  8. Home Radiation Protection

  9. Home Radiation Protection (cont)

  10. Nuclear Protective Actions (cont) Follow-on Actions • Remain in protected areas or shelters until all clear • Perform damage assessment, self-aid and buddy care, and reporting actions • Decon yourself by brushing dust/fallout off of your clothing or by blotting away with adhesive tape–Rinse exposed skin • Limit radiation exposure by minimizing time spent outside in contact with fallout, and maximizing time in shelter and distance from radiation • Radioactive fallout can be carried by winds for hundreds of miles

  11. Nuclear Protective Actions (cont) Nuclear Concerns • The primary products of a nuclear detonation are: • Blast and shock • Thermal radiation (heat) • Nuclear radiation • Ballistic debris for surface and shallow sub-surface bursts

  12. Nuclear Protective Actions (cont) Types of Nuclear Radiation • Initially at the time of the burst, or delayed as fallout • Alpha–harmful if internalized • Beta–may cause skin burns; harmful if ingested • Gamma–destroys living cells; harmful when exposed • Neutron–emitted only during detonation (most harmful)

  13. Radiation Radiation Sickness • Caused by radiation destroying cells within the body at a rate the body cannot overcome • Radiation sickness is not contagious • Early symptoms are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and illness • Subsequent symptoms, severe body fluid loss, internal hemorrhaging, and diarrhea

  14. Radiation (cont) Individual Decontamination • Radioactive material can’t be neutralized–it must be removed from affected surfaces • Avoid breathing dust by covering nose/mouth with dust mask, handkerchief, or equivalent • Brush dust from clothing and footwear • Remove and bag clothing (isolate the bag) • Thoroughly wash dust from skin (soap & water) • Seek medical attention after officials indicate it is safe to leave shelter • Listen/Watch for instructions from local officials • Do not return to or visit an RDD incident location

  15. Isolation Room (Inside Entrance)

  16. Fallout Shelter (Half-Basement)

  17. Biological Agents Biological agents include: • Viruses • Bacteria/Fungi • Toxins cultured from living organisms that are developed to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants Biological agents may be found as: • Liquid droplets • Aerosols • Dry powders

  18. Biological Agents(cont) Routes of Infection: • Skin • Cuts • Abrasions • Mucous membranes (eye, nose, mouth) • Gastrointestinal • Food–Potentially significant route of delivery • Water–Capacity to affect large #’s of people • Respiratory • Inhalation of spores, droplets, and aerosols • Aerosols are an effective delivery method

  19. Biological Protective Actions Immunizations and PreventativeMedications • Keep your immunizations current Physical Health • Poor physical health reduces your body’s ability to resist and fight infections • Regular exercise and balanced meals build and maintain your body’s natural resistance to diseases Personal Hygiene • Frequently washing with soap and water prevents and eliminates most areas where biological agents multiply • Protecting skin cuts and abrasions also denies biological agents additional pathways of entry into your body

  20. Biological Actions(cont) Food and Water Sanitation • Wash all fruits and vegetables before eating and ensure that all foods are thoroughly cooked • Additionally, drink only from approved water sources, & only use ice that’s approved for consumption Self-Monitoring • Individuals noting and reporting the onset of unusual symptoms and providing precise information as to the time symptoms began • This is key to detection and assists medical personnel in administering appropriate treatment • Assist others in identification of potentially affected individuals

  21. Biological Actions(cont) What can be done? • Awareness • Individual and collective protection • Consider installing a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter • Vaccination, prophylaxis, and medical treatment • Detection and characterization • Safe practices

  22. Immunizations and Treatment Keeping immunizations current is paramount

  23. Chemical Agents Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids, and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals, or plants. Three general types of chemical hazards: • Nerve • Blister • Toxic Industrial Material (TIM) What you should do in a chemical attack: • Remain in home or office building; Shelter-in-Place • Listen to radio for instructions from authorities

  24. Before a Chemical Attack • Check disaster supplies kit:
 • Roll of duct tape and scissors • Plastic for doors, windows, and vents • For room in which you will shelter in place • To save time, pre-measure & cut plastic sheeting for each opening
 • Choose an internal room to shelter; preferably one without windows and on the highest level

  25. Nerve Agents Characteristics Symptoms Protection • May have a fruity smell or camphor odor, others may be odorless • Most lethal of all agents • Symptoms can be immediate; lethal within minutes • Affects nervous system • May be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin • Vapor, solid, or liquid • Antidotes may be effective even if given to a victim having advanced symptoms, as long as victim still breathes • Pinpointing of pupils and muscular twitching • Dimness of vision and runny nose • Tightness of chest and difficulty in breathing • Excessive sweating, drooling, nausea and vomiting, and involuntary urination and defecation • Convulsions, coma, death • Intermittent cumulative exposures to very low amounts can lead to the same ultimate effect as a single exposure to a higher amount • Practice contamination avoidance and expedient decontamination • Flush eyes and open wounds with water and protect from further contamination • Seek medical attention as soon as possible after any exposure or as soon as symptoms appear

  26. Blister Agents Characteristics Symptoms Protection • Designed to incapacitate • Also known as mustard agents • May smell like garlic or have a fishy/musty odor • Liquids, or solids • Destroys tissues, injures blood vessels, causes blisters • Violently irritate mucous membranes in eyes/nose • Affects eyes, respiratory tract, and skin • May be lethal if inhaled, ingested, or through skin absorption • Incapacitation may last for days or weeks • Symptoms may be immediate or take up to four hours to appear • May cause stinging sensation upon contact • Blisters any tissue it contacts • Red, watering eyes • Blurred vision • Light sensitivity • Blindness • Sweaty groin and armpits are more susceptible to blister agents • Practice contamination avoidance • Seek medical attention as soon as possible after any exposure or as soon as symptoms appear

  27. Toxic Industrial Material (TIM) TIM hazards consist of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC), Toxic Industrial Biologicals (TIB), and Toxic Industrial Radiologicals (TIR). Most present a vapor (inhalation) hazard. They may also reduce the oxygen concentration below that required to support life.

  28. Toxic Industrial Material (TIM) Category Type of Material Primary Uses • Agriculture • Industrial • Production and Research • Radiological • Insecticides, Herbicides, Fertilizers • Chemical and Radiological Materials • Chemicals and Biological Materials • Nuclear Fuel, Medical Sources • Agriculture, Vector Control • Manufacturing Processes, Cleaning, Water Treatment • Laboratories, Storage Facilities • Nuclear Power Plants, Medical Facilities, Industrial Plants, Laboratories The most important action is immediate evacuation outside the hazard’s path (if feasible.) If evacuation is impractical, implement shelter-in-place procedures.

  29. Shelter-In-Place May be the only short-term practical solution to protect large populations in homes, workcenters, and office complexes following certain hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents. Shelter-in-place is most effective when occupants pre-plan and practice contingency actions. Cover as much as possible with plastic or similar tarpaulins Time is your best ally, you are better off to wait out a chemical spill: Stay indoors Decon with diluted bleach or with soap and water

  30. Shelter-in-Place Tips While Outside a Building–an outdoor hazard release may result from an accident during storage, transport, fire, or the result of a malicious act. • Move away immediately, upwind/crosswind of source • Take cover, even within a temporary structure • Notify others • Don available protective equipment • Report the event • Perform self-aid and buddy care as needed • Seek shelter in nearest building or safest area, as quickly as possible; remain until otherwise directed

  31. Shelter-in-Place Tips (cont) While Inside a Building–to a very limited degree, buildingsact as natural filters. In some cases, shelter-in-place can offer limited short-term protectionagainst airborne hazards that originateoutdoors. • Turn off HVAC and exhaust fan(s), fans, and combustion heaters • Close and seal doors and windows with duct tape and plastic sheeting to contain hazard • Move to a central safe room or area, take your disaster supply kits • Report the incident to the Fire Department • Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities

  32. Decontamination Guidelines Decontamination is needed within minutes of exposure • Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water • Remove all clothing & other items in contact w/ body • Cut off clothing normally removed over head to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth • Work from top to bottom • Put contaminated clothing/items into plastic bag & seal it • Decontaminate hands using soap and water • Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses • Put glasses in pan of bleach to decontaminate, rinse and dry • Flush eyes with water

  33. Decontamination Guidelines (cont) • Gently wash face/hair with soap & water before rinsing • Decontaminate other body areas • Change into uncontaminated clothes • Clothing stored in drawers/closets is likely to be uncontaminated • Proceed to a medical facility Decontaminate yourself first, then assist others Use extreme caution when helping others exposed to chemical agents Do not leave the safety of a shelter to help others until authorities announce it is safe.

  34. How To Clear Your Building (Post Chemical Attack) Once the "all clear" has been sounded or an hour has passed which ever comes first: • Take deep breath of stagnant air in shelter and hold it • Untape and open door • Move quickly through building until you reach the outside leaving ALL doors passing through open • Clear the building at a minimum 20’ • Stay up wind of the building for 30 minutes minimum • Find a gas mask with a chemical filter and put it on • If you cannot find one, soak a towel with water and place it over your mouth and nose to breath through

  35. How To Clear Your Building (Post Chemical Attack) (cont) • Go around building from outside & open every door you can • If you have access to electric fans or bellows place them at the entrances in an exhaust position • If not mother nature will have to do her part (much longer) • If wearing gas mask, after opening doors go in & open windows • If not wearing gas mask, wait min 2 hours before entering bldg to open windows, with wet towel over mouth & nose • Don't forget to air basement (if any), many chemicals can stay down there for a very very long time in a lethal dose