Hunger • Concept of Hunger • Multidimensional Approach to Hunger • Global Hunger Index • Child Malnutrition
Concept of Hunger Hunger is defined in many ways: • The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defines it as consumption of fewer than 1800 kilocalories a day – the minimum required to live a healthy and productive life. Criticisms: • Metabolism rates are different across age, gender, climate etc. • Required calories depend on type of work (sedentary or manual), climate, age, etc. • Captures only one dimension of hunger – energy intake • Ignores disparities across social groups : children in particular more vulnerable
Global Hunger Index (GHI) • We require multi-dimensional approach to hunger – energy intake, deficiency in nutrition, and must account for vulnerable section of the society. Global Hunger Index (GHI) has three components: • Percentage of undernourished population (PUN) • Percentage of underweight children under 5 (CUW) • Percentage of children dying before the age of five (CM)
Under-Nutrition • Under-nutrition signifies deficiencies in energy, protein, essential vitamins and minerals. • It can be result of inadequate intake of food – in terms of quantity or quality– or poor utilization of nutrients due to infections or illnesses. • Malnutrition refers to both under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition (problem of over-eating or unbalanced diet).
Global Hunger Index GHI = (PUN +CUW+CM)/3 • Higher GHI score indicates more hunger • The index varies between a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 100.
Severity of Hunger The severity of hunger using GHI score is measured as follows: GHI Score < 5 Low 5.00 -9.9 Moderate 10.0-19.9 Serious 20.0-29.9 Alarming > 29.9 Extremely Alarming
Childhood Under-Nutrition • Child under-nutrition manifests itself in different ways. The three main measures of child under-nutrition are: • Stunting – Low height for one’s age – It reflects the cumulative effects of chronic under- nutrition. • Wasting – Low weight for one’s height – It reflects acute under-nutrition resulting from inadequate food and nutrient intake and/or repeated or severe disease. 3. Underweight – Low weight for one’s age – It reflects either stunting or wasting or both.
Measurement of Under-Nutrition • Researchers use Z-score to measure the extent of under-nutrition. • These scores reflect how much a child’s weight or height deviates from the standard for healthy child growth set by the World Health Organization (WHO). • The closer a child’s Z score is to zero, the closer he or she is to the median of the international growth reference standard. • Under-nutrition is defined as a Z score below -2 and severe under-nutrition as Z score below -3.
Policy Measures • Improving care for women and children • Improving access to health care • Improving access to quality foods