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Chapter 9 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Jails

  2. Introduction • Jails house the “rabble” • Distinguished from prisons and lockups • Differences from prisons • Co-correctional • County-run • Urban • Heterogeneous population • Short term confinement

  3. History of Jails • Gaol – related to houses of correction • Fee system • John Howard • History of Jails in America • 1682 – Great Law of Philadelphia • Walnut Street Jail • Jailing for debt • Jailing juveniles (Houses of Refuge)

  4. The Twentieth Century Jail (1 of 2) • Mostly county (85%) • Functions of Jails • Pretrial Detainees • Misdemeanants • Felons • Others • Juveniles

  5. The Twentieth Century Jail(2 of 2) • Population Characteristics • About 53% are pre-trial detainees • About 10% are women • About 39% are Black • Architecture • Traditional Jails (linear) • Second Generation Jails (remote design) • New Generation Jails • Functional living units

  6. Jail Operations and Administration(1 of 3) • Staffing and pay • Less status than patrol deputies • Legal Issues • Section 1983 • Habeas corpus lawsuits • Mandamus actions • Bell v. Wolfish

  7. Jail Operations and Administration(2 of 3) • Jail Standards • Standards may be best defense against litigation • Concerns that standards cannot be met, especially by smaller jails • There are no mechanisms to enforce adherence to standards

  8. Jail Operations and Administration(3 of 3) • Overcrowding • A lot of additional beds but national average still at 95% of capacity • Special Needs Inmates • The Mentally Ill (Wyatt v. Stickney, 1971) • Alcoholics • Drug Addicts • Sex Offenders • Suicide: 35% of all deaths in local jails • Juvenile suicides

  9. Jail Socialization and Subculture • A Day In The Life • Jail time is “dead time” • Prisoner subculture is less extreme than prison but still violent