Conflict • “Conflict is disagreement between two or more individuals or groups with each individuals or group trying to gain acceptance of its view or objectives over others” • “Disagreement through which the parties involved perceives a threat to their needs ,interests or concerns” • “conflict is the expression of disagreement over something important to both sides of a dispute.”
Conflicts is often needed for • Helps to raise & deal with problems • Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues • It motivates individuals to participate • Helps people learn how to recognize & benefit from their differences • Conflicts is a problem when • It affects productivity of an orgenisation or a group • It reduces moral of individuals , involved in the conflict • It affects individuals behavior • It also leads to the feeling of anger ,frustration ,hurt , anxiety of fear
Causes Of Conflict • Communication factor • Structural factors • Size • Participation • Line-staff distinctions • Reward system • Resource interdependence • Task interdependence • Power • Personal behaviour factor • Communication style • Workforce diversity • Difference in goals • Differences in perceptions • Emotional conflict
Constructive / positive aspect of conflict • Conflicts leads to greater creativity, more enthusiasm & better decision • People can develop by learning that perception or information were incorrect. • It leads to improved ideas, searching for new options & increased interest & creativity. • Improvements in the quality of decision. • Conflict can provide environment of self-evaluation & change • Conflict is also an solution for groupthink ,as it does not allow groups to passively accept decision that can be based on inadequate information , weak assumptions • An optimal level is where there is enough conflict to stimulate creativity, prevent stagnation and allow tension to be released • Motivation should enhanced through the creation of challenging & questioning environment. • Attitude of curiosity , genuineness ,listening ,questioning , humanity . • A 2 –way process:- trying to achieve mutually acceptable outcome ,broad vision , open to change • High level of personnel responsibility for process ,balance between giving & taking • Increase the involvement of individuals in solving problems • Helps to building cohesiveness among people by sharing the conflict , learning from each other
Destructive aspect of conflict • It may arises anxiety in individuals ,increase tension • Lower satisfaction • A climate of mistrust & doubt • Decrease productivity • Unequal information • Affect effectiveness of the group or orgenisation • Increased employee absence & turnover rate • Out of control • Divert energy from more important activities & issue • Narrow interest • Destroy the moral of people • Reduce inter-group co-operation.
Types of conflict Three different types of conflicts :- Intra-individual conflicts ( or Intra-personal ) occurs at personal level. Inter- personal conflict occurs at group level Organizational conflict occurs at organisation level. 1.Intra-individual or Intra-personal :-occurs at personal level. Also known as internalised conflict which is internal to the individual and perhaps the most difficult type of conflict to analyze. It represents a situation where an individual is in a problem of decision making within himself. Reasons for intra-individual conflict A number of competing needs and roles A variety of different ways that drives and roles can be expressed Many types of barriers which can be occur between the drive and the goal Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. Intra individual form of conflict can be analyzed in terms of Frustration Goals Roles
Types of conflict Conflict from frustration :- It occurs when an individual’s goal directed behavior is blocked due to certain barriers before reaching a desired goal. Frustration usually triggers defense mechanisms in the individual and the individual normally reacts by physically or symbolically attacking the barrier or the cause of conflict. Goal conflict:- It occurs where the attainment of one goal stop the possibility of accomplishing another. In goal conflict two or more motives block one another. Sub types are – Approach- approach conflict Avoidance –avoidance conflict Approach – avoidance conflict
+ + P Approach- Approach conflict :- It emerges when the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. The individual simultaneously wants both but he has to choose only one. The individual remains undecisive. As long as he is undecisive, approach- approach type of conflict is acting on this mind. But once the decision is taken , the conflict is get resolved. 2.Avoidance – Avoidance conflict :-It involves a choice between two mutually exclusive , painful , unattractive negative roles. Mental stress and anxiety is caused since the individual has to choose one out of the two negative alternative . He wants to avoid both but choosing one is compulsory . This conflict is painful for the individual in view of his inability to avoid either of the two goals. 3.Approach –avoidance conflict :-It involves both positive and negative feelings associated with attractive and repulsive features of the goal simultaneously . This type of conflict is most relevant to the analysis of organizational behaviour. For example :- promotion will give more status and money (approach) but it also involves transfer to remote place (avoidance) for which the individual repels from goal. - - P P + - goal
Role Conflict :- “The simultaneous occurrence of two or more role sending's such that compliance with one would made more difficult compliance with the other. The two expectations are mutually contradictory. If person is not clear about his job duties & when the person in role is not able to respond to the expectation of other person Role Conflict :-Divided into five types- Intra – sender conflict :- Takes place when the role sender demands two inconsistent behavioral pattern Example:- M.D. of a pharmaceutical co. asks the Quality Control Manager to maintain high standard but simultaneously offers him incentives to ignore a critical problem situation where saline – glucose bottles are found to contain fungus unobservable to the naked eye. Inter – sender conflict:-different role –set member may have conflicting expectation from a particular member Example:- the boss ask the supervisor to exercise strict control over subordinate, but subordinate want loose supervision.
Inter – role conflict :-such conflicts arises when an individuals hold multiple & divergent roles For example ,Women executives are trying to balance the interface between career and family roles. Person – role conflict :-conflict occurs when person is asked to do a job which is incompatible with his own value system For example , an executive may be forced to keep on oiling the wheels of a corrupt system but his moral values pinch and prohibit him from doing so. Role – overload conflict :- Conflict takes place when qualitative as well as quantitative expectations related to particular role are highly demanding and the focal person feels short of time and resources to meet all standards of performance. People in modern organizations usually experience intra – role and inter –role conflicts.
2.Interpersonal conflict :- it arises when Two or more individuals are interacting with one another whereas difference of opinion between individuals about task related matter . These conflicts are a serious problems to many people as they deeply affect a person’s emotions . There is a need to protect one’s self image and self esteem damage by others. Causes of Interpersonal conflict :- Difference in perception Informational difference Difference in personality Difference in value system Difference in status Divergent role
3.Orgenisational conflict:- • The conflict between different orgenisation is considered desirable for growth of economy. • It is assumed that conflict between orgenisation leads to innovative & new products, technological advancement , & better service at lower price. • Horizontal conflict:-it take place between person or group operating at the same level in hierarchy. • Vertical conflict:-it occurs between levels in orgenisation ‘s hierarchy.
Types of Conflict A. Internal conflict: • Persons Vs self B. External conflict • Person Vs Person, person Vs society, person Vs technology • Relationship conflict • This conflicts occur because presence of strong negative emotion ,misperception , poor communication • Data conflict • Data conflicts occurs when people Lack of information to make decision ,misinformed , wrong interpretation • Due to poor communication • Interest conflict • Caused by competition over perceived incompatible needs • Structural conflict • Are caused by limited physical resource or authority, geographic constraints, time , organizational change • Value conflict • Values are belief that people use to give meaning to their lives. values explain what is “good ,“right or “wrong” • Conflict arises when people attempt to force one set of values on others
Work conflict • There are five subtypes of work conflict • Interdependence conflicts • A one employee is dependent on other output • Difference in style • Difference in background gender • Differences in leadership • Personality clashes • Team conflict:-conflicts in the team arises due to following reasons • Lack of individual productivity • Lack of leadership • cognitive conflict:- task oriented disagreement arising from difference in perspective • Emotional conflict • Competitive conflict 8. Intergroup conflict • Functional conflict • A functional conflict is confrontation between groups that enhances & benefits organizational performance • Dysfunctional conflict • A functional conflict is confrontation between groups that is harmful to the orgenisation or blocks goal achievement
Conflict management • “Conflict management is the practice of identifying & handling conflict in a sensible, fair & efficient manner” • Strategies for managing conflict • Constructive or functional conflict need to be stimulated & negative or destructive conflicts must be eliminated through preventive & curative measure. • There are three strategies of handling conflict. • Conflict stimulation • Conflict prevention • Conflict resolution
Stimulating conflict • Conflict may be stimulated when their is too much lethargy & conformity in an orgenisation . • Method used by management to stimulate conflict • Using of informal communication • Manager may manipulate massage inn such a way as to stimulate conflict. • Conflict can also be stimulated by redirecting massage & altering channels of communication. • Reorganization work structure • Changing the structure of orgenisation is an effective method of stimulating conflict. • Encourage competition • Healthy competition between individuals as group may be stimulated through properly administrated incentives. • Bringing in outsiders • Management shake up stagnant orgenisation by bringing in people whose attitude ,values & styles differ significantly from the prevailing norms .when such heterogeneous person join an orgenisation divergent opinions, innovative ideas & originality ca be developed .
2.Preventating conflict • Preventing conflict following strategy may be used • Reducing interdependence • Potential of conflict is high when two department are interdependent & share scare resources .by reducing interdependency we can prevent conflict between them • Establishing super ordinate goal • Goal difference can be avoided by establishing mutually agreed goal • Rotation of personnel • Rotation of employee between interdependent department can improve perception & mutual understanding. • Developing trust & communication • The greater the trust among the member of the unit ,the more open & honest the communication will be minimize misunderstanding between employees. • Creation of liaison groups • Intermediate unit or person they can help to prevent conflict • Avoidance strategy • It involves withdrawal of parties from the scene of the conflict • Appeal to higher authority • When the conflict can not be resolved at the level of parties involved ,it may be referred to superior position
3.Resolving conflict (Curative techniques) • Problem solving by constructive negotiation • Face-to –face meeting between conflicting group • Openly debate issues , gathering all relevant information until decision is reached • The focus is sharing information to avoid misunderstanding & find out the common interest. • Expansion of resources • Major cause of intergroup conflict is limited resources • Expanding resources resolve conflict • Smoothing • It is the process of suppressing differences existing between parties to conflict & emphasizing on common interest. • This method is useful when the conflict is associated with aggressive feelings among the parties. • Bureaucratic authority • Conflict is resolved through rules ,regulation & formal authority • Limited communication • Encourage small communication between department stop misperception developing. • Dominance of confrontation • In this technique parties to the conflict are left free to settle their score by mobilizing their strength & capitalizing on weakness o others • Stronger party will dominate weaker party.
Conflict management styles Thomas- kilmann conflict mode instrument • In 1970 Kenneth Thomas & Ralph kilmann suggested five main styles dealing with conflict. • They noted that different styles were most useful in different situation.
Avoiding strategy/style:( I lose –you lose) • Accepting default decision ,and not hearting anyone • People avoid conflict out of fear of engaging in a conflict • Avoiding behaviour might be appropriate in following ways • When disruption would be very costly • Issue of low importance • When victory is impossible • When the controversy is trivial • Avoiding skills are • Ability to withdraw • Ability to sidestep issues • Ability to leave things unresolved • Sense of timing
2.Competing style(I win –you lose) • It is characterized by high assertiveness & low cooperativeness. • This approach may be appropriate when quick ,decisive action is needed, such as emergencies • When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues • Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline). • When you know you’re right. • Competing skills are • Arguing or debating • Using rank or influence • Standing your ground • Stating your position clearly
3. Accommodating strategy/style (I lose –you win) • This mode is low on assertiveness & high on cooperativeness. • This behaviour is appropriate • When people realize that they are in the wrong • When issue is more matter to the other party • When peace is more valuable than winning • This style important for preserving relations between parties 4. Compromising( you lose –I lose) • This style is characterized by moderate levels of both assertiveness & cooperativeness. • It is mutual give & take • It generally produce suboptimal result • Compromising mode can be used when • When goals of both sides are of equal importance • When the cost of conflict is higher than cost of losing ground • When dealing with relatively small concern • Compromising skills are • Negotiating • Finding middle ground • Assessing value • Making concessions
Collaborating strategy/style:(I win –you win) • Collaboration has been described as “putting an idea on top of an idea on top of an idea …in order to achieve the best solution to a conflict. • Both sides creatively work towards achieving the goals & desired outcomes of all parties involved . • Focus is on working together • This style is useful when you need to bring together variety of viewpoints to get the best solution • Collaboration mode can be taken when • When the issue are too important to compromise • when improving relationship • When the goal is to meet as many current needs as possible by using mutual resource • This approach represent the most beneficial mode for most type s of conflict management • The manager utilizes the conflict to guide the conflicting parties to address what essentially are obstacles faced by the orgenisation • Collaboration skills • Active listening • Identifying concern • Analyzing input
Interest based relation approach( IBR approach) • To resolve conflict by using this techniques use following rules • Make sure that good relationship are the first priority • Treat other calmly & that you try to build mutual respect. • Keep people & problem separate • Separating problem from the person ,real issue can be debated without damaging working relationship • Pay attention to the interest that are being presented • Give attention so you can understand the problem • Listen first: talk second • Listen carefully the reply to the problem • Set out the “facts” • Agree & establish the objectives • Explore option together • Be open to the idea that a third position may exist
How to resolve conflict successfully? • Following ability required to resolve conflict … • Manage stress quickly • Control your emotion & behaviour • Pay attention to the feelings being expressed • Be aware of & respectful of differences • Listen for what is felt as well as said • Make conflict resolution the priority rather than winning or “being right” • Focus on the present • Pick your battles • Be willing to forgive
Using the tool: a conflict resolution process • Step One:-Set the scene • People understand that the conflict may be a mutual problem which may solved through discussion & negotiation rather than through raw aggression. • Use active listening skill to ensure hear & understand other position & perception • Don’t talk in aggressive style • Step two: gather information • Ask other person viewpoint • Try to understand his her motivations & goals ,& see how your action may be affecting these • Identify issue clearly and concisely
Step three : Agree the problem • You will need to agree the problems that you are trying to solve before you will find mutually acceptable solution • Step four: Brainstorm possible solution • It provide possible solution ,& help in being open to all ideas including ones you never considered before • Step five : Negotiate a solution • By this stage conflict may be resolved • Both sides understand the position of the other • This is where technique like win-win negotiation can be useful to find out a solution
Conflict Negotiation • Conflict negotiation is a body of theory & collection of skills • The most important aspect of conflict negotiation is that the individuals /groups in conflict directly participate in the resolution of their own problem • Conflict negotiation skills • Reflection • Critical thinking & analysis • Decision making • Imagination • Communication • Conflict negotiation • Group building
The effect of conflict on orgenisation • Negative effect • Insubordination • Drop in productivity • Lack of direction • Fragmentation • Lack of new ideas • Quality of work • Deadlines • Poorly handled conflict can generate significant costs in corporate setting • Frustration among employee • Costs due to legal suits can also be incurred
Positive effect • Increased group performance • Improved quality of decisions • Stimulation of creativity and innovation • Encouragement of interest and curiosity • Provision of a medium for problem-solving • Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change
Benefits & losses of conflict to groups • Benefits • Productive task focus • Cohesion & satisfaction • Power & feedback • Goal attainment • Losses • Energy diversion • Distorted judgment • Loser effects • Poor co-ordination