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Lecture Organization

Lecture Organization

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Lecture Organization

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  1. Lecture Organization India Lane Educational Enhancement, UTCVM

  2. Lecture Organization • Brief Review • Types of Lecture Formats • Planning the Lecture • Fundamentals lecture organization • Additional tips

  3. When are lectures useful?

  4. When are lectures useful? • The purpose is to teach information • The presenter is effective, comfortable and the “expert” • The learners are able to assimilate from lectures • Group size is moderate to large • Facilities are adequate

  5. Lecture Types • Hierarchic • Problem - centered • Chaining • Comparison • Paired classifications • Logical dichotomy • Network

  6. Hierarchical • Level 1 point A • Level 2 point a • Level 2 point b • Level 2 point B • Level 2 point a • Level 2 point b • Level 3…

  7. Problem Centered

  8. Compare/Contrast

  9. Other Lecture Types • Chaining • Logical Dichotomy • Network

  10. Common Organizing Principles • Cause to effect • Historical time sequence • Phenomenon or examples theory • Pro versus con or compare/contrast • Familiar unfamiliar • Concept application

  11. Planning Lecture Organization • What are the goals of the lecture, course, program, institution? • What is the logical structure of the subject matter? • What is the cognitive structure of students’ minds (currently)?

  12. Planning • What room will it be in? • What will I need? Is the technology ready? • Will I need to buy/digitize/request/setup anything? • Can I get the reading, notes, examples, etc to the students ahead of time?

  13. Lecture Structure • Introduction • Body • Periodic Summaries • Conclusion

  14. Lecture Structure • Introduction • Body • Periodic Summaries • Conclusion Make it clear!

  15. Introduction • Capture attention • Point out a gap in students’ knowledge • Raise a question • Offer a challenge • Prequestions • Example, case, application

  16. IntroductionOne recommendation • Aims • Announce lecture topic • Present educational goals/aims • Show importance • Context • Show relevance of topic to goals • Refer to earlier lectures • Framework • Indicate lecture structure and scope

  17. Body • Highlight a few major ideas or sequences • Appropriate use of audiovisual support • Keep highlighting the overall structure • Use examples where possible

  18. The Body of the Lecture…Another reminder

  19. Lecture Attention

  20. Periodic Summaries • Offers a chance to catch up • Offers a chance to check onperceptions/misperceptions • Makes transitions clearer

  21. Periodic Summaries

  22. Conclusion • Recapitulate major points • Encourage students to formulate questions • Review organization of the lecture • Ask a student(s) to summarize the lecture • Propose unanswered questions for next time or for independent work

  23. Lecture Structure • Introduction • Body • Periodic Summaries • Conclusion

  24. …and now for audience participation “ What is the most common error in lecture preparation and delivery?”

  25. the answer… Trying to cover TOO MUCH MATERIAL

  26. Planning • What do I really want students to remember from this lecture…next week.. next year? • What in my lecture could be better learned by another method?

  27. Planning • What are the most difficult concepts? • What are the most diverse or scattered concepts? • What relationships within the material are more subtle than others? • What framework is needed for future learning?

  28. For New Points • Itemize (list, bullet, etc) • Use a visual buildup (slide, picture, etc) • Take stock and summarize • And…

  29. For New Points • Itemize (list, bullet, etc) • Use a visual buildup (slide, picture, etc) • Take stock and summarize • And… Pause!

  30. Making a point effectively • Rule • E.g….. • Rule

  31. Making a point effectively • Concisely state the rule • Simple language using 7-8 words • One key word • Less than 5 seconds (Remember trace decay is quick!!)

  32. Making a point effectively… e.g…. • Display • Word, statement on screen • Reexpress • Say it another way • Elaborate • Illustrate • Explain • Detal • Analogies • Relate • Example

  33. Making a point effectively… rule! • Rule • Recapitulate • Restate (Use the same statement you started with) And… Pause!

  34. Making a point effectively • Rule • E.g….. • Rule

  35. Making a More Difficult Point • E.g. • Rule • Rule • E.g

  36. Making a More Difficult Point • E.g. • Example(s) • Reasoned interpretations • Observe* • Rule • Concise statement/display • Rule • Rexpression • E.g • New example • Recapitulate, restate

  37. Definitions • Point out that a definition is coming • Keep it simple • A = B + C • Avoid embedded definitions • A – (B + D) + (C +E)

  38. Gaining attention • Variation • Intensity • Pace • Expression • Surprises

  39. Gaining attention • Visual cues • Gestures • Movement • Eye contact/facial expression • Demonstrations, cases, activities, questions • Use a lot of examples • PAUSES!

  40. Getting feedback • Watch the students • Not necessarily the top students • Ask, assess

  41. Summary • Use lecture format when appropriate • Plan what to cover and the best structure/format • Use an Introduction, Body, Periodic Summaries, Conclusion • Convey the structure to be used • Keep refreshing the structure as you introduce new points/make links • Periodically take stock or summarize