Leisure Resources, Leisure Opportunities. Rich MacNeil, Professor, Aging Studies Program. Leisure and Quality of Life. Growing body of empirical work which suggests that among older adults, the greater the leisure satisfaction the greater the life satisfaction.
Leisure and Quality of Life Growing body of empirical work which suggests that among older adults, the greater the leisure satisfaction the greater the life satisfaction. Leisure involvements can contribute to physical, mental, and psychological health
Retirement as an Expected Life Event Life expectancy at birth in 1900 was 49 years. Life expectancy at birth in 2000 was almost 77 years. In 1900, 70% of men 65+ were employed full time. In 2000, only 12.2% of men 65+ were employed full time. In 1900 average American spent less than 5% of their life in retirement. In 2000, this has grown to almost 20%.
“To Retire” Dictionary: “to retreat or withdraw from one’s occupation or position” Thesaurus: “to withdraw, leave, resign, abdicate, lie low, put out, keep aloof…”
Theories of Successful Aging Disengagement Theory (Cumming and Henry, 1961) Activity Theory (Havighurst, 1963) Continuity Theory (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1968)
Rowe and Kahn’s Model of Successful Aging (1997) Physical and Functional Health: Avoidance of disease and disability High Cognitive Functioning: Actively using problem solving, conceptualization, and language skills to ensure mental stimulation Active Involvement with Society: Maintaining social contacts and participating in productive activities
Two Additional Components of Successful Aging Sense of Purpose: A reason to get up every morning Sense of Perceived Control: Motivation needed to avoid “learned helplessness”
Individual Leisure Repertoire Hobbies Crafts Creative Pursuits Reading Collecting Study Games and Puzzles Viewing television or movies
Religious Participation and Spirituality Participation in religious organizations Seeking personal meaning through religion Devotional activities outside of church Spirituality: the belief in a relationship with a higher power (nature, helping others, meditation, etc.)
Civic Engagement “The process in which individuals actively participate in the life of their communities” Mark Freedman Joining community groups Sharing wisdom and experience Support community activities (e.g., arts, parks, schools) Community activism
Membership in Voluntary Associations Senior Centers AARP Older Women’s League (OWL) Nature Organizations Library Boards Education Groups Senior Advocacy Groups (Grey Panthers) Political Participation Groups
Why do elders volunteer? Staying active and healthy (reduces depression and anxiety symptoms) Keeps them busy and occupied Helps society by first helping local community Makes one feel important Getting little rewards in life for what you do Knowing someone (i.e. student) has confidence and trust in you Having the feeling that you helped someone today
Value of volunteering Participation in social activities -Helpful to remove loneliness from loss of roles -Happiness from being occupied -Chance to communicate with other generations Promoting self-esteem and self-realization -Maintaining and using their abilities -Feeling themselves are useful -Satisfaction of their lives
RSVPRetired Senior Volunteer Program Nationwide program Largest federally funded volunteer organization in the country Federal gov’t awards grants to community sponsors Average RSVP project receives just under 50% of its support from federal resources Individual RSVP projects sponsors are public agencies, private and nonprofit organizations and institutions Locally sponsored by Elder Services, Inc. since 1990 Housed in Iowa City Senior Center About 400 volunteers in Johnson Co.
RSVP activities SPEAK UP Rock & Readers Pen Pals IRIS-Iowa Reading Information Services- reading newspapers and news info on the radio for those who cannot see well enough to read themselves $AIF- informing elders of fraud Safety checks Crisis Center, American Red Cross Iowa City Police Department Meals on Wheels University of Iowa—mock trials, volunteer patients Hospitals Friendly Visiting
How to get involved Call 356-5217 for an appointment with RSVP director Fill out application stating areas of interest, if known, and desired time commitment Personal interview http://www.elderservicesiowa.com http://www.seniorcorps.org/
Salvation Army Clothes, furniture, house wares collection Spread the word, drop off or arrange for pick-up Benefits Raise money for SA’s projects Reduce waste accumulation from failing to recycle these goods Community Center: 1116 Gilbert Court Phone: 337-3725
The Foster Grandparent Program “If a child is to keep his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it, rediscovering with him the joy, excitement, and mystery of the world we live in.” —Rachel Carson Seniors work with kids with special needs 15-40 hours/week Can take place in various locations Compensation May vary state-to-state, ie Maine Benefits Develop strong emotional, often reciprocal relationship with children Satisfaction knowing they may have changed the child’s life for the better
Senior Companion to Frail Elderly “If someone listens, or stretches out a hand, or whispers a kind word of encouragement, or attempts to understand a lonely person, extraordinary things begin to happen.” —Loretta Girzartis Serve frail older adults, adults with disabilities or terminal illnesses 60+ 15-40 hours/week Goal: Help frail adults retain independence Offer respite for caregivers to prevent caregiver burn-out.
Senior Companion to frail elderly, cont’d. Assist in essential ways Companionship Chores Transportation General life enrichment Compensation Benefits Participate in positive, meaningful relationship Gratification in knowing they’ve truly enriched a person’s life If anything, a friend
AARP Various volunteer opportunities offered through American Association of Retired Person’s databases Caregiving -- help relieve people who take care of seriously ill or disabled friends or relatives. Citizens Representative Program -- ensures that older citizens are represented on public commissions and board. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors (CHISS) -- help provide information on housing options, etc. Health Advocacy Services -- provides information on health, fitness, healthcare-consumer issues, and long-term care. Healthcare Campaign -- promotes better U.S. healthcare, combats rising costs. Medicare/Medicaid Assistance Program (MMAP) -- volunteers to help older people understand these programs and file claims. Mental Health-Social Outreach and Support -- help people deal with loneliness and life changes.
AARP (cont) Minority Affairs Initiative -- provides information and help to improve the quality of life for older minorities. Retirement Planning -- helps workers prepare for retirement financially, physically, emotionally, and provides assistance to employers setting up programs. State Legislative Committees (SLCs) -- help determine AARP legislative priorities to promote and enact laws on aging issues. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Outreach Project --help low-income people understand and accessing their right to SSI. Tax-Aide -- help older persons file income tax returns. Widows Person Service -- offers support to widows and widowers. Women's Initiative -- help ensure that economic, health and other important needs of older women are met. 55 Alive/Mature Driving -- provides classes to sharpen the skills of older drivers.
Volunteer Opportunities Ask a Friend Campaign Environmental Alliance for Senior Involvement Family Friends National Council on the Aging: RespectAbility Senior Medicare Patrol Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) Volunteers in Parks Senior Community Service Employment Program
Travel Trends Retired individuals have FREE time to spare…traveling is one form of leisure recreation they can use to fill their new found time! Older adults are frequent travelers They travel by air, sea, rental cars and they stay in hotels Also more likely to take day trips, travel by camper or recreational vehicles, and travel outside the United States
Senior Cruises Favorite Destinations: Alaska Hawaii Panama Canal Mediterranean The majority of the people on these cruises are seniors…so they are designed with them in mind! They offer many deals which can be shared with friends and family who are NOT seniors too
Cruises continued… Activities Offered: Casino games Exercise Classes Dancing Lessons Wine Tastings Singles Parties Movies Shopping Dining: Lunch Low calorie option Pasta prepared at your table Poolside buffet Dinner 5 to 7 courses Often feature international specialties Dress can be as formal or causal as you want
Seniors Home Exchange “You visit with them and, in return, they visit with you” exclusively for seniors age 50+ cheaper alternative to resort town traveling save on hotel stays, meals, tours many exchanges include cars…save on rental fees! can exchange your home, motor home, caravan, boat Many members do an exchange 3 or 4 times a year Your home is safer having someone in it while you are away…comforting to know that your home, pets and plants will be cared for cost to register your exchange online is only $79 for a 3 year listing or $100 for Lifetime Membership! http://www.seniorshomeexchange.com/
Destinations Australia Belgium Chile Dominican Republic France Greece Ireland Israel Malaysia Netherlands Portugal Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom and all over the United States! Las Vegas, NV http://www.seniorshomeexchange.com/
Escorted Tours Most traditional kind of tour Usually involves group travel with accommodation, activities and meals included Generally, the tour follows a set itinerary and will be accompanied by a tour director or guide Sometimes local guides and experts may join in Some escorted tours offered specifically for Seniors: http://www.aroundandabouttours.com/(US & Canada) http://www.reidsguides.com/t_tu/t_tu_guided.html (Europe) http://www.seniortours.ca/ (Canada) http://www.east-quest.com/pages/2/index.htm (Asia)
Choosing an Escorted Tour? The Cons: Regimentation Potential for visits you might not be interested in or for moving to quickly thru the things you might wish to spend more time on Lack of free time to rest or for independent exploring Meals, sightseeing and information geared to the lowest common denominator Chance you’ll get stuck with incompatible traveling companions NO flexibility to change travel plans along the way. The Pros: Affordable travel NO language problems in foreign countries Visit lots of territory in little time Safety and security in group travel Lots of traveling companions Chance to learn from EXPERTS Ease of travel in areas that might not be easy to navigate alone such as Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia
Vantage Deluxe World Travel Established in1983 in Boston, MA $140 million company 400,000 travels annually For “mature travelers” – normally 50+ Mission: “Vantage has one primary mission and goal: to provide quality products & services that exceed the expectations of our customers. Our entire staff is committed to achieving this goal. At Vantage Deluxe World Travel, the customer always comes first.” www.vantagetravel.com
Walking the World Travel for those Adventurous Souls who are 50 and Better… live life fully, explore other lands, experience new cultures, and make new friends stretch yourself: physically, mentally and emotionally designing and leading adventure travel trips in many different parts of the world since 1987 http://www.walkingtheworld.com/
“TRIPS OF A LIFETIME” Costa Rica – Rainforest Ramble January 3-13, 2008 Land Cost: $1,895 U.S. Single Supplement Rate: $425 U.S experienced guide meals as listed ground transportation fees to scheduled stops Costa Rican Naturalist Guide 10 nights accommodation free T-shirt or hat Rafting-non-whitewater Local Tico Festival & Barbecue Internal Flight Airport Transfers Canopy Tour-Hanging Bridges Mariachi Music Basic Spanish Introduction *They also offer upcoming trips to Utah and France in early 2008! http://www.walkingtheworld.com/
Elderhostel Non-profit leader for educational travel For travelers 50 years+ Over 8,000 learning adventures in over 50 states and 90 countries History, Culture, Nature, Music, and Outdoor Activities like walking and biking, individual skills, arts & crafts study cruises 160,000 travelers annually www.elderhostel.org
National Parks 391 areas covering more than 84 million acres… in every state except Delaware Effigy Mounds in Harpers Ferry, IA Saguaro National Park in Tucson, AZ
Entrance Passes…. Interagency Senior Pass The $10 pass is offered to individuals 62+ is a LIFETIME pass available to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. Pass is available only in-person at entrances or visitor centers admits the pass holder and passengers in a vehicle at per vehicle fee areas & pass holder + 3 adults at per person fee areas 50% discount on some Expanded Amenity Fees charged for facilities and services like camping, swimming, and boat launch There are also FREE lifetime passes for people with permanent disabilities & for people who have acquired 500+ hours volunteering in the National Parks System http://www.nps.gov/
Older Americans in the Peace Corps “It’s a wonderful way to ‘give back’ and at the same time continue to gain valuable benefits for yourself. Peace Corps life is always full of surprises, so life continues to be interesting. But probably most of all, when we get to the autumn of our lives it’s important to still have a sense of purpose.” -Judith Frey, English Teacher, China 2001-2003 http://www.peacecorps.gov/
Why Exercise? Increase overall quality of life Maintaining cognitive functioning Social implications Strength and Stamina
Benefits Scientists have learned that brain neurons (the special cells that help you think, move, perform all the bodily functions, and help with memory) all increase in number after just a few days or weeks of regular activity. In a study where researchers used an MRI machine to measure the amount of brain tissue in adults 55 years of age and older, they found, consistent with other studies of aging and brain volume, that there were substantial declines in brain tissue density as a function of age in areas of the brain responsible for thinking and memory, but importantly, the losses in these areas were substantially reduced as a function of cardiovascular fitness. In other words, the fittest individuals had the most brain tissue.
Benefits Research suggests that as many as 14% of males and 18% of females over age 55 are depressed. Improved self-esteem is one of the top benefits of regular physical activity. While exercising, your body releases chemicals called endorphins that can improve your mood. The feeling that follows a run or workout is often described as "euphoric" and causes an energized outlook. It has been documented that exercise can alleviate symptoms of depression and even compete with the effects of antidepressant medication or psychotherapy in terms of effectiveness Exercise can help cope with stress and ward off depression and anxiety.
Benefits Preventing Heart Disease Regular activity strengthens your heart muscle; lowers blood pressure; increases "good" cholesterol and lowers "bad" cholesterol; enhances blood flow; and helps your heart function more efficiently. All of these benefits reduce the risk of stroke, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Benefits Preventing Osteoporosis Weight-bearing exercise (such as walking, jogging, stair climbing, dancing, or lifting weights) strengthens bone formation and helps prevent the osteoporosis or bone loss often seen in women after menopause. Strength training prevents sarcopenia, the muscle deterioration that comes with aging, and also helps maintain bone mass.
Benefits Preventing a Stroke In an analysis of 23 studies, researchers found that being active reduces your risk of having and dying from a stroke. According to a study published in the journal Stroke, moderately active participants had 20% less risk of stroke than less active participants. Preventing Type II Diabetes This disease has increase by 62% since 1990. 17 million Americans have Type II Diabetes. Physical activity can help prevent and control this condition. Losing weight can increase insulin sensitivity, improve blood sugar, improve cholesterol levels, and reduce blood pressure which are all very important to the health of people with diabetes.
Recommendations Sign up for classes Same day, same time Creates routine Do activities that are enjoyable Tennis Swimming Exercise with friends Creates Moral Support Motivation
Johnson County Senior Center Yoga classes "Boomers and Barbells" Individual fitness assessment Strength Training Core Conditioning Contact: Michelle Buhman 356-5222
Senior Games What is the NSGA? A not-for-profit member of the United States Olympic Committee dedicated to motivating senior men and women to lead a healthy lifestyle through the senior games movement. The organization that governs the Summer National Senior Games, the largest multi-sport event in the world for seniors, and other national senior athletic events. An umbrella for member state organizations across the United States that host State Senior Games or Senior Olympics. The NSGA supports and sanctions these member state organizations so that adults can participate in their state in events year-round that will keep them motivated to achieve greater value and quality in their lives by staying healthy, active and fit.
National Senior Games Association History of the NSGA The first senior games had 2,500 competitors and the second senior games had 3,500. This has continued to grow and is not expected to slow down anytime soon.
National Senior Games Association Competitive events Events in the NSGA are wide in variety to appeal to most seniors. Archery, badminton, basketball, bowling, cycling, golf, horseshoes, racewalk, racquetball, road race, shuffleboard, softball, swimming, table tennis, track & field, triathlon and volleyball. The NSGA holds the National Winter Senior Games as well as the summer games. The winter games were added in 2000 to provide a year round opportunity for seniors to remain active.
Iowa Senior Games Olympic style sports festival for men and women who are at least 50 years of age. There are 50 different activities in 10 age categories. Medals are awarded in all age categories. Contact: Iowa Senior Games 515-633-5011
Huntsman World Senior Games What are the Huntsman World Senior Games? International sports event for seniors to promote healthy lifestyles and hobbies. 22 athletic events ran by over 2,000 volunteers In addition to athletic events, the HWSG promote health by providing life saving health screenings for cancer-breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer. Screenings also detect other serious health threats--glaucoma, diabetes, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, and decreased bone density
Huntsman World Senior Games The events that are played at the HWSG are also wide in variety in order to appeal to almost all of our seniors. Basketball, bowling, bridge, cowboy shoot, cycling, golf, horseshoes, lawn bowls, mountain biking, pickle ball, racewalking, racquetball, road races, softball, square dance, swimming, tennis, table tennis, track & field, triathlon, volleyball, walking tours.
Senior Softball There are more than 1.5 million active senior softball players and that number is growing as baby boomers come into the market. Softball is the number one men's team sport in America with approximately 21 percent of the male populace participating. Softball is one of the few sports in America which has achieved near parity in the numbers of men and women participating.
Recommendations CNN.com “Decade-by-decade guide to exercise” “The 60’s” 3 days a week of challenging but not exhausting cardio, such as a slow jog, plus 3 days of weight training, using lighter weights and slower more controlled movements combined with slow, sustained stretching. Walk whenever possible Daily balance exercises In the 60’s, problems like arthritis , bad knees, and spinal stenosis become common
Recommendations Each session should be at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity. Strength, balance, and flexibility exercises should all be part of the physical activity. Important key – Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance
References http://www.elderservicesiowa.com http://www.epa.gov/aging/ia/examples.htm http://gerontologist.gerontologyjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/6/805 http://www.seniorcorps.org/ http://www.siu.edu/offices/iii/Publications/model.html Martinson, Marty. “Opportunities or Obligations? Civic Engagement and Older Adults”. The American Society on Aging. 2007.
Various Volunteer Opportunities Salvation Army The Foster Grandparent Program Senior Companion to frail elderly Senior Mentor/ Tutor AARP Advocacy AGE OWL Gray Panthers
Why Exercise? cont… Maintain Brain Longevity Maintain Independence Activity Daily Living Skills Instrumental Activity Daily Living Skills Prevents Disease
National ProgramsLocalized Arthritis Foundation Jingle Bell Run/Walk Quad Cities Aquatics Program Mercer Park Aquatic Center Golf Classic for Arthritis Des Moines
National Programs AARP Walking Programs Physical Mental http://Massage Matrix Health Promotion