Leisure Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time.
Recreation A leisure time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment. It includes individual pursuits, organized outings and events, and non-paid (non-professional) sports.
Sport A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competitive.
Tourism Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure. Note that this definition excludes day-trippers. There are many possible subdivisions of tourism. Sub-groups include:
ecotourism tourism focusing on the natural environment and local communities
heritage tourism tourism based on a historic legacy (landscape feature, historic building or event) as its major attraction
sustainable tourism tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people.
primary tourist/recreational resources The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites. These are distinguished from secondary tourist/recreational resources, which include accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping.
Resort A settlement where the primary function is tourism. This includes a hotel complex.
Carrying capacity The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time. It is customary to distinguish between environmental carrying capacity (the maximum number before the local environment becomes damaged) and perceptual carrying capacity (the maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as noise, to be excessive). For example, young mountain bikers may be more crowd‑tolerant than elderly walkers.
Discuss the difficulties in attempting to define leisure,recreation, tourism and sport.
They often overlap, and participation in them may be simultaneous.
Discuss the influence of accessibility, changes intechnology and affluence upon the growth of theseactivities.
Changes in demand Explain the long- and short‑term trends and patterns ininternational tourism.
En milliard på reisefot Internasjonal turisme nådde for første gang over én milliard reisende i fjor (2012). Trend Global tourism is a thriving business ↑ (Predicted 130% increase of international tourists between 2000 and 2020)
The tourism industry has grown in terms of its global extent and the volume of the tourists involved.
Pattern Europe continues to receive the greatest share, but tourist preference is shifting in favour of the Asia-Pacific region, Africa and the Middle East.
Changes in supply Examine the changes in location and development of different tourist activities. Explain the growth of more remote tourist destinations.
Lots of mass tourism, but an ever-growing demand for new and exotic experiences. Sun, sea and sand boredom. Niche tourism has evolved out of a desire for diversity and something new – this is more likely to be sustainable.
Case study of anational touristindustry Examine the economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism.
Kenya See Tourism Costs and Benefits sheet + notes on Kenya Kenya
Case study ofecotourism Evaluate the strategies designed to manage and sustain the tourist industry.
Where? The Masai Mara National Reserve is a large game reserve in south-western Kenya. PPT on geo-revision.net: Case Study Sustainable Tourism - Masai Mara, Kenya (PPT)
Tourism as adevelopment strategy Examine the importance of tourism as a development strategy for low-income countries.
Tourism is a positive route towards economic development, especially when they lack raw materials for manufacturing. Greener than manufacturing, mining etc. Export – but not subject to price fluctuations of commodities sold on the world market. Can be an effective way for a country to overcome its problems of balance of payments. Labour-intensive. Direct and indirect employment. Provides opportunities to acquire new skills for instance in languages, catering and entertainment. Multiplier effect. Can redistribute wealth at all scales (also to rural areas), provided leakage is not allowed to drain the economy. Adds diversity to the export base. Helps to stabilize the foreign exchange earnings. But vulnerable to global shocks, because of weak domestic demand.
Tourism managementin urban areas For one named city or large town: • describe the distribution and location of primary and secondary tourist resources • discuss the strategies designed to manage tourist demands, maximize capacity and minimize conflicts between local residents and visitors, and avoid environmental damage.
Marbella PPT on geo-revision Urban Case Study Tourism Marbella (by Kristina)
Examine the concept of carrying capacities in a ruraltourist area. "Tourism Carrying Capacity" is defined by the World Tourism Organisation as “The maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of visitors' satisfaction”.
Discuss strategies designed to maximize capacity andminimize conflicts between local residents and visitors,and avoid environmental damage. Lake District, UK
Pages 172-175 in New Wider World Lake District
Define sustainable tourism. Geography Course Companion: Pages 252-253.
Examine the extent to which it might be successfullyimplemented in different environments. Articles about the Antarctic on geo-revision. You can discuss Svalbard in the Arctic.
Internationalparticipation andsuccess Examine the social, cultural, economic and political factors affecting participation and success in two major international sports.
You chose two sports. Geography Course Companion pages 234-235.
Clay pigeon shooting NOK 800 per session Olympic Gold Hero, Sheikh Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Hasher Al Maktoum.
Case study of acontemporaryinternational sportsevent Analyse the geographic factors that influenced the choice of venue(s).
2008 Beijing Olympic Games Why Beijing?
Examine the factors affecting the sphere of influence forparticipants and supporters.
Evaluate the short- and long‑term geographic costs andbenefits of hosting such an event at both the local andnational level.Geography Course Companion pages 235-237Beijing suffers the curse of the Olympic city
Case study of anational sports league Explain the hierarchy of a league and the location of its teams.