Plants Chapter 2
A Plant Cell’s Unique Organelles • Cell Wall • Chloroplasts • Chlorophyll • A single vacuole
What do plants need to survive? • Sunlight • Water • Nutrients and minerals
How do plants take in materials? • Take in water through the roots • Root hairs: threadlike cells that grow from a plant root and takes in water and minerals from the soil
Moving Materials to Different Plant Parts • There are tubes that carry water, food, and minerals through the plant. • One tube brings water up. • One tube brings food and minerals down. • An elevator!
TRANSPIRATION • Transpiration is the evaporation of water through the leaves. • Stomata: openings in the leaf through which gases and water enter and leave. • Water leaves the plant through the stomata. • Gases enter the plant through the stomata.
Transpiration • http://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module01/Transpiration.htm
Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make sugar from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. • For this to occur, plants need: • Sunlight • Water • Carbon Dioxide
Steps of Photosynthesis 1. Chloroplasts trap the light energy (sunlight). • Water enters the leaf. • Carbon dioxide enters the cell through the stomata. • Sugar leaves the leaf and travels to the rest of the plant.
Respiration • Respiration is the process by which cells change sugar and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water (energy). • This is how the plant breaks down the food (sugar) into a form it can use! • Cells use this energy to do their work.
A Flowering Plant • Important parts: • Stamen: male part of the flower that produces pollen • Pistil: female part of the flower that contains the egg
Fertilization vs. Pollination • Fertilization: takes place when the male gamete from the pollen joins the female gamete in the ovary. • Pollination: any process that delivers pollen to eggs in plants (this is the first step in fertilization!!) • What are some ways that pollination can occur?
Life Cycle of Flowering Plant • Pollen sticks to pistil. Pollen tube grows into ovule. • Sperm fertilizes egg cell. • Egg cell becomes a seed. • Ovule grows into a fruit that covers seed. • Seed grows into a new plant.
Fertilization • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=FC424D65-D3BE-4A4E-B564-B77B5A8911A4&blnFromSearch=1
Life Cycle of Conifers • Conifers: plants that make seeds in cones • Most are trees and shrubs with leaves like needles. • 2 types of cones: • Pollen cones • Seed cones
Conifer Life Cycle • Pollen spreads through air and sticks to seed cone. • Sperm fertilizes egg cell. • Egg cell grows into a seed. • Seed grows into a new plant.
Life Cycles of Seedless Plants • Some plants do not make seeds!! • These plants never have flowers or cones. • Examples: moss and ferns • Spores: a tiny cell that can grow into a new plant.
Life Cycles of Fern • Spore cases open. • Spore begins growing into young fern plant. • Sperm swim to egg cells of young fern plant. • Fertilized egg cell grows into new plant part. • New plant part grows into fern.
What is a plant adaptation? • A plant adaptation is • a change in a plant’s structure • occurring over a long period of time • makes the plant able to live in a particular area