Ch. 7, Sec. 1—The Articles of Confederation Objectives: Know how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to instability. Be familiar with how Congress dealt with the western lands.
13 Independent States • Americans won independence, but not much respect from Britain. • Needed to establish their own govt. to gain respect. • British believed the new govt. was weak & ineffective. • States began to organize their own govts. and adopt own state _______________. • Writers wanted to prevent abuse of power of one individual and put it into hands of the people (regulated power of governor). • States divided responsibility between governor and _____________ (they were more powerful). • Most states had a ___________ legislature (= 2 houses). • Leg. were elected by people—elections held frequently. • Most states: only white males over ____ yrs. old could vote . . . Also had to be property owners or pay certain amount of taxes. • Some states, free African American males could vote.
Forming a Republic • Felt establishing separate state govts. was easier than creating central govt. • Americans agreed that country should be a _________. Republic--_____________________________________________. • Could not agree on the origin and powers of new republic. • First, Americans favored weak central govt. • Power given to states to function independently, except for: • Power to wage _________. • Handle relations w/other countries. • 1777—Second Cont. Congress adopted the _________ ____________________. • Provided central govt. to fight war against Britain (America’s first Constitution). • States gave up little power—Articles set up a “league of friendship”. • March 1, 1781—Confederation formally became govt. of U.S.
New Land Policies • AOC included no policies for adding new states. • When Revolution began, only few thousand white settlers lived west of App. Mtns. • By 1790’s, numbers increased to almost 120,000. • Congress needed to extend authority to provide order and stability. • 1785—Congress passed___________ of 1785. • Allowed for surveying/selling western lands north of the Ohio River. • Divided Western territories into large townships and smaller sections. • Each small section of a township would be sold @ auction for at least $___ an acre! • Land speculators could get large amounts of land for little $$$.
Northwest Territory • 1787--_________________ __________ passed! • Created single Northwest Territory of lands north of Ohio River and east of Miss. River. • Divided into 3-5 smaller territories. • Pop. reached 60,000, territory could apply for statehood. • Would enter in as an equal to original 13 states. • Included a bill of rights to protect settlers by guaranteeing them freedom of _________ and trial by ________. • No slavery permitted!!!
Trouble on Two Fronts • Confederate govt. amounted large debt b/c of war and had problems w/Britain & Spain over landholdings & trade. • Owed soldiers wages & foreign countries. • Congress had no power to ______, so no way to raise revenue. • Paper money from Rev. War was almost worthless. • B/C no power to tax, Congress issued more paper money. • So many bills in circulation, value of $$$ fell. • There was no ________ or ________ to back the bills. • To help solve financial problems, Robert ________ started department of finance. • Suggested a plan calling for a 5% tax on all ____________ goods. • The measure did not pass. • Britain blocked Americans out of W. Indies & other profitable markets. • Spain closed lower ____________ River to U.S. shipping to prevent expansion into their territory.