4/1/13 S: Rock Cycle - Edusmart When a 2.6 g marble is dropped in a graduated cylinder filled with 25.0 mL of water, the water rises to 34.1 mL. Calculate the density of the marble.
Table of Contents Date Lecture/ Activity/ Lab Page 3/21/13 Earth Foldable 3/25/13 Reading Chapter 17 3/26/13 Edusmart: plate tectonics 3/27/13 Tectonic Plate cut-out Lab 3/28/13 Plate boundaries– label and color 3/29/13 Edible Plate Tectonic Lab 4/01/13 Rock Cycle- Edusmart
P: Watch Edusmart– Rock Cycle A &C : Take Active Notes
E: Describe how sedimentary rocks are formed.
S: What is the average speed of the helicopter between 4 and 10 seconds? Rock Cycle – Notes 4/4/2013
Table of Contents Date Lecture/ Activity/ Lab Page 3/21/13 Earth Foldable 3/25/13 Reading Chapter 17 3/26/13 Edusmart: plate tectonics 3/27/13 Tectonic Plate cut-out Lab 3/28/13 Plate boundaries– label and color 3/29/13 Snicker Tectonic Lab 4/01/13 Rock Cycle- Edusmart 4/04/13 Rock Cycle Notes
P: What is a rock? • A solid mixture of crystals from one or more minerals and organic substance (remains of plants and animals). • A mineral is naturally formed solid matter with a crystal structure; inorganic. • Rocks are divided into 3 groups based on how they were formed: • Sedimentary • Igneous • Metamorphic
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? • Rocks are made of ONE OR MORE minerals. • A mineral is a pure substance
Classifying Rocks • Geologists observe the rock’s color and texture and determine its mineral composition. • Texture: the size, shape, and pattern of the rock’s grain. • Color: the apparent color of the rock, on the inside and the outside. • Mineral composition: The minerals that make up the different parts of a rock.
Texture: The texture of a rock depends on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the minerals in the rock. • fine grained (powdery) • medium grained (sandy) • coarse grained (bumpy)
Rocks are continually changed by: • Weathering • Erosion • Compaction • Cementation • Melting • Pressure • Cooling • Rocks can change to and from the different types
What is the Rock Cycle? • The rock cycle is the continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material. • Earth materials change back and forth among the different types of rocks.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks (inside) • Below ground = from magma • Have LARGE crystal grains • cooled slowly & solidifies
Extrusive Igneous Rocks (exit..outside) • Above ground = from lava • Usually have SMALL or NO crystals • cooled too quickly
Metamorphic Rocks Quartzite • A type of rock that forms as a result from HEAT AND PRESSURE • but DOES NOT MELT!! • Rocks that have changed due to intense temperature and pressure • “Meta” means “change” and morphosis means “form” in Greek Marble
What occurs in the Earth to change these rocks? • Pressure from overlying rock layers • High heat, but not enough to melt the rock • Rocks may be flattened or bent or atoms may be exchanged to form new minerals.
Metamorphic RocksWhat are they? • Rocks that have changed • They were once igneous or sedimentary or metamorphic • Pressure and heat changed the rocks
Cool & Solidifies Melting Melting Melting
Sedimentary Rocks • Formed from sediments (rock fragments, mineral grains, animal & plant remains) that are pressed or cemented together • Form from particles deposited by water, wind, and gravity • Process of sedimentary rocks: • Weathering • Erosion • Deposition • Compaction • Cementation Lithification
EROSION COMPACTION / CEMENTATION
Weathering Breaks down rock into smaller pieces MECHANICAL CHEMICAL WEATHERING WEATHERING Rock is physically broken into smaller pieces breaking of rock into smaller pieces because of chemical changes within the rock
Mechanical Weathering is the breaking of rock without any change in the chemical composition of the rock • Sometimes called “physical” weathering • Rock is torn apart by physical force, rather than by chemical breakdown • Ice • Thermal • Biotic (plants, trees)
E: Describe the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks.