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  1. NEW IMPERIALISM: MOTIVES AND TACTICSNineteenth-Century Empires SUPERQUIZ Section II – PART 3 13 questions – 32.5%

  2. Europe Spreads to Africa • The greatest imperial shift during the 19th century was Europe’s changing stance regarding Africa

  3. 2.07: LISTING • 3. List the few places where European colonization had taken place in Africa prior to the nineteenth century. (p. 44) • Portugal in West Africa (Angola) • French in Senegambia region (Senegal) • Dutch and English settlers on the Cape of Good Hope

  4. Early interactions • Most Europeans had limited knowledge and interest in Africa prior to the late 18th century • This indifference and ignorance stemmed from a lack of __________ with Africa • Only a few European interactions had occurred by this time period • Portuguese slave traders settled in ______________ on the western coast • The Senegambia region, specifically Senegal, served as a home to ______________ traders • Dutch and English settlers had established a colony on ________________________________________ • Europeans represented Africa as outside ______________ in writings, visual imagery, and maps • Africans were ostensibly savage brutes • Africans as a _________source only reinforced the idea of Africans remaining outside of humanity contact Angola French The Cape of Good Hope civilization labor

  5. Europeans Interact with Africans • Proponents of a free market saw Africa as potential market • dumping ground for European _________________ • Africa also served as a source for _____________ • West Africa exported ________oil and _______oil • These goods lubricated European __________________________________ • This economic prosperity led to Europeans visualizing Africa as a potential site for Civilization • If Africa became a European trading partner, Africa had markets, cities, and states of its own manufactured goods raw materials palm peanut Industrial machinery

  6. Growing Public Awareness of Africa African Association • The rise of the _____________________demonstrated the sudden awareness of Africa’s economic potential • This company dedicated itself to the African commercial expansion of ______________ • Scottish explorer ______________worked for the company • He led expeditions on the _______________in West Central Africa in 17____ and 18__ • These voyages led Park to encounter the _____________and _____________states • These two societies________________ _______________ confirmed beliefs that Africa could become a British trading partner • Mungo Park wrote ________________________________about his expeditions in West Africa • included a piece of art showing __________ in ___________ country • Explorers’ accounts of Africa proved enormously popular and helped spark public interest in Africa Britain Mungo Park Niger River 95 05 Fulani Bambara commercial infrastructure Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa Kamalia Mandingo

  7. Mungo Park

  8. Europeans Face Multiple Obstacles in Africa Disease • ____________devastated Mungo Park’s two expeditions of the Niger River • Until the mid_______century, disease posed a threat to European-African commercial ties • Europeans had previously held the upper hand in immunity to diseases • African diseases now overwhelmed Europeans much as European diseases had overwhelmed ______________________ 19th Americans

  9. Europeans Face Multiple Obstacles in Africa • these 4 diseases ravages Europeans: • DYSENTERY • YELLOW FEVER • TYPHOID • MALARIA • 19th century Africa is often known as the ___________________________as a result of the potency of diseases • Methods for treating malaria were ineffective or __________in themselves • Some Europeans attempted to cure malaria with __________________ White Man’s Grave lethal mercury

  10. Dealing with Malaria • European chemists discovered that_____________could cure malaria in the 1820s • Quinine derived from the bark of the ______________ tree in _______________________ • By the 1850s, Europeans used quinine ___________________ in order to avert contraction of malaria • Europeans faced incredibly high death rates from African diseases • Disease killed more European soldiers than warfare in Africa through the 1870s quinine cinchona South America perventatively

  11. High Death Rates from Disease • Europeans faced incredibly high death rates from African diseases • Disease killed more European soldiers than ______________ in Africa through the 1870s warfare

  12. Geographic Obstacles

  13. Geographic Obstacles

  14. Geographic Obstacles

  15. Geographic Obstacles • African physical features created great challenges for European explorers • The invention of the ________________in the ____th century partially fixed this problem • The steamboat applied James Watt’s steam engine to transportation • Europeans could now explore continental rivers in • Africa, • Australia, and • Asia • At rapid speeds even against the wind and the current steamboat 19th

  16. Geographic Obstacles Steamboat • _____________ exploration of Africa, however, remained difficult for a substantial period of time • Steamboats had to be • dismantled, • carried around ___________and then • reassembled • Europeans gained access to almost all areas of Africa following the use of steamboats • Areas that lacked ______________________remained largely untouched by Europeans • These regions were among the last parts of Africa to be ______________________ rapids adequate waterways colonized

  17. Movement towards colonization • Most challenges facing Europeans in the penetration of Africa had been removed or solved by the mid _____ century • ______________________ were often among the first people to enter into regions of Africa • Many of these missionaries were ___________________ who sought to end ________________in Africa • These religious zealots sought to convert people to Christianity and westernize “primitive” natives • To these people, conversion to Christianity and cultivating beneficial __________________ relationships went hand in hand • Both of these goals moved Africans along the civilizing process of Westernization 19th missionaries evangelicals slavery economic

  18. Movement towards colonization • African mission stations attracted other Europeans • ______________ often utilized the knowledge of missionaries for economic benefit • Missionaries sought _________________ protection • These desires involved European governments in Africa Traders government

  19. Explorers raised public interest about Africa • Many explorers embarked on ______________ to raise money from these 3 sources • government, • general public, and • scientific authorities ….for further African expeditions • The most successful African explorers were often the most skilled ____________________ • Quite a few of these men became national heroes • _______________________is one such man Lecture tours speakers David Livingstone

  20. Quick Facts: David Livingstone Dr. David Livingstone was a Scottish minister. He is the most famous European missionary of the Age of Imperialism. Livingstone traveled to South Africa as a missionary in 1840 at the age of 27. Livingstone went on to become one of most famous explorers of central Africa. He is known as the first European to travel the breadth of the continent of Africa from east to west. He was also the first known European to see Victoria Falls. Livingstone is best know for his disappearance and the subsequent search for him be the American newspaper reporter, Henry Stanley. From 1863-1869, Livingstone completely lost contact with the outside world. When found, Stanley uttered the famous words, “Livingstone, I presume?”. Livingstone died in Africa in 1873.

  21. David Livingstone • VICTORIA FALLS

  22. DAVID LIVINGSTONE This missionary-explorer published the book titled --WHEN? 1857 --The work describes Livingstone’s dual quest to open central Africa to both • religion and • trade

  23. Explorers raised public interest about Africa Henry Stanley • __________________ represented a different take on the African explorer • The ________________ hired this Anglo-American to locate Livingstone after the latter went missing in Central ______________ New York Herald Congo

  24. Explorers raised public interest about Africa 1872 • After the ________ publication of ___________________, Stanley became an instant hero How I Found Livingstone

  25. Misinformation & Negative Stereotypes • Explorers often misinformed their audiences and perpetuated negative stereotypes of Africans • Henry Stanley was instrumental in associating Africa with ____________ in the European mindset • Stanley used imagery such as (3) • immorality, • savagery, and • irrationality to describe Africans darkness

  26. Writers captivated by Stanley’s Account Edgar Rice Burroughs Joseph Conrad Polish-English novelist Conrad published WHEN? In 1902 • American novelist • wrote : • WHEN? • in 1912

  27. Expanding into the Interior • Europeans began expanding from their existing bases in Africa during this time • The Portuguese started exploring from their ___________ settlements Angola

  28. Expanding into the Interior • The French moved from Saint Louis into ____________ • Similarly, the French moved from ____________ farther into the interior of Algeria • French took Algiers in ___________ • The French fought a costly war in the 1840s and 1850s against Algerian guerillas • __________________headed these well-armed African troops • By _________, France could claim Algeria as a colony Senegal Algiers 1830 Abd-el Kader 1869

  29. Dutch Landing in Africa 1652

  30. FYI Summary: South Africa • Boerswere descendants of Dutch sailors who had settled in southern Africa in the mid 1700s. The Boers lived a relatively solitary, agrarian/rancher lifestyle. • By the early 19th century the British took control of the Cape of Good Hope and the Cape Colony. • The Boer farmers clashed with their new British rulers. • In the 1830s, the Boer farmers migrated north (the GREAT TREK) from the Cape Colony and established three independent Dutch colonies (Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State). • In 1867, diamonds were discovered in the Orange Free State. Thousands of British colonists migrated to OFS. There was strife between the Boers and British in the OFS. In 1887, gold was discovered in the Transvaal.

  31. The Great Trek, 1835-45 Afrikaners

  32. The Great Trek It’s easy as 3,4,5! 1835 • The Great Trek from ______ to ______resulted from _________Afrikaners fleeing British control in southern Africa • These Africans migrated north of the __________ River seeking land of their own • By the late 1830s, the Afrikaners established independent republics in the ___________, the ___________________, and the _______________ 1845 15,000 Orange Natal Orange Free State Transvaal

  33. The Struggle for South Africa

  34. Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds

  35. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) “The Colossus of Rhodes”

  36. Boer-British Tensions Increase • 1877 – Britain annexed the Transvaal. • 1883 – Boers fought British in the Transvaal and regained its independence.. • 1880s – Gold discovered in the Transvaal

  37. The Boer War: 1899 - 1900 The British The Boers

  38. AFRIKANERS • The Afrikaners were largely self-employed as _____________________ • They also engaged in ongoing territorial battles with the ________ • The ________often fought the Afrikaners • This tribe was a southern Bantu people cattle ranchers Bantus Zulus

  39. Afrikaner Expansion British • The __________felt threatened by Afrikaner expansion • Britain annexed the__________ province in ______to cut off the Afrikaners from the _______ • Officially, the British recognized the sovereignty of the _____________________and the _____________in _________ • The British, however, constantly intervened in Bantu-Afrikaner conflicts Natal coast 1843 Orange Free State Transvaal 1854

  40. Europeans: violent confrontations with African political entities in a state of flux Zulu • The __________ of South Africa = perfect example • During the ________, King __________________built a powerful Zulu empire in the ___________ region • King Shaka lived from ________o _________ • This sparked disturbances throughout southern Africa • The raiding armies of Shaka sent many Bantu peoples seeking refuge • The________________were one of these peoples • Bantu peoples fled south into British territory or north into ________________land • _____________ and Afrikaners thus warred constantly over land 1820s Shaka Zulu Natal 1781 1828 Ndebele Afrikaner Bantus

  41. People in History: Shaka and Resistance • Zulu Wars

  42. Anglo-Zulu War 1837 1838 • Zulus began to migrate north from ______to _____ • led to an armed conflict • The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from ______to ______ • conflict erupted from tensions due to____________ expansionism into Zulu territory • The Zulus temporarily defeated the British at the ________________________: key importance= • first victory of an African force over a European power • BUT….the British went on to crush the Zulus 1878 1879 British Battle of Isandhlwana

  43. Battle of Isandlwana