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Evolution

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Evolution

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  1. Evolution Tim Whitehouse Brennan Ray Kevin Britt AJ Walters

  2. Chapter 22!

  3. Main Idea 1 • Before Darwin, there were many differing views on how evolution occurred. • The first ideas about evolution was that life might change gradually over time (Greek philosphers) • Aristotle saw species as fitting a certain spot on a “ladder” which he called the scalanaturae,and was perfect and permenant. • Some people who were religious believed that since God made all the species, they were perfect and didn’t change at all. • Carolus Linnaeus created a binomial system for naming species.

  4. Main Idea 2 • Darwin got many of his ideasfrom the work of paleontology (the study of fossils) • Darwin looked at how older fossils had changed from newer fossils. • Catastrophism led to the ideas about mass extinction, which Darwin never figured out, but is still important to know. • Darwin also looked at uniformitarianism, which applied loosely to his ideas on evolution.

  5. Main Idea 3 • Darwin’s voyage on the HMS Beagle helped him form his ideas on evolution. • Darwin sailed around the world while aboard the Beagle • Darwin noted that plants and animals were well suited for their environment. • Darwin's most famous endeavor was on the Galapagos islands, where he studied several kinds of finches, which were suited to do different things according to their food source.

  6. Main Idea 4 • Darwin came up with the concept of natural selection. • Darwin saw many adoptions in the different animals he saw. • Hypothesized that species arise from older species after having many adoptions, and species got adoptions that better suited them to their environment. • Wrote all his ideas on this in his book: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (commonly known as The Origin of Species)

  7. Main Idea 5 • Descent with Modification • Darwin never used the term Evolution, even though it was the last word in his book, to describe his “Descent with Modification” • Thought there was a common ancestor for all organisms. • Saw evolution as a tree with points of evolution breaking off from the main branch.

  8. Main Idea 6 • Artificial Selection • Humans can cause this, we call it selective breeding. • Made observations of nature that traits are inherited from an organisms parents. • Darwin hypothesized an important connection that organism’s could “overproduce”, or have more offspring than their environment could handle.

  9. Main Idea 7 • You can observe evolution directly. • Separation of species can cause evolution to occur as organisms adapt to their new environment. • An example of direct observations is the experiment with the guppies (Page 460) • Another example of ongoing natural selection is HIV becoming drug-resistant.

  10. Main Idea 8 • We can “see” evolution in fossil records. • Fossils show that past organisms differed from present-day organisms. • Fossils show the gradual changes in organisms over time. • These predictions of changes based on fossils can be predicted by using radioactive dating techniques.

  11. Main Idea 9 • Studying Homology helps us “see” evolution. • Organisms can have characteristics that have underlying similarities but have different functions. • These structures are called homologous structures. • Many of the most intriguing homologies concern “leftover” structures of marginal importance to the organism.

  12. Main Idea 10 • Biogeography is evidence of evolution • This is the geographic distribution of species. • Sometimes caused by continental drift. • Explains a little about endemic species.

  13. VOCAB!!!SO EXCITING!!!!

  14. Evolution Descent with modification.

  15. Fossils • The remains or traces of organisms from the past.

  16. Strata • Superimposed layers of sedimentary rock.

  17. Paleontology • The study of fossils.

  18. Catastrophism • The principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those operating in the present.

  19. Uniformitarianism • Mechanisms of change are constant over time.

  20. Adaptations • Characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific enviroments.

  21. Natural Selection • A process in which individuals with certain inherited traits leave more offspring than individuals with other traits.

  22. Artificial Selection • When humans modify other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits.

  23. Homology • Similarities between species resulting from having a common ancestor.

  24. Homologous Structures • Variations on a structural theme that was present in species’ common ancestor.

  25. Vestigial Structures • Remnants of features that served important functions on the organism's ancestry.

  26. Evolutionary Tree • A diagram that reflects evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.

  27. Convergent Evolution • Independent evolution of similar features in different lineages.

  28. Analogous • Resemblances in species due to convergent evolution.

  29. Biogeography • The geographic distribution of species.

  30. Continental Drift • The slow movement of Earth’s continents over time.

  31. Pangaea • The single large continent that existed on Earth 250 million years ago.

  32. Endemic • When species are found nowhere else in the world.

  33. Picture Time!!!!!!

  34. Layers of Strata

  35. The finches Darwin studied

  36. Evolutionary Tree! Species A A Common ancestor to all four species. B Species B A B Common ancestor to species A and B Species C C Common ancestor to species C and D C Species D

  37. Homologous Structures

  38. Question Time!!!!

  39. Question 1 • The similar structures in mamamlianforlimbs is an example of…? • Vestigial Structures. • Transitional Structures • Homologous Structures • Convergent Evolution • Balancing Selection

  40. Question 1 • The similar structures in mamamlianforlimbs is an example of…? • Vestigial Structures. • Transitional Structures • Homologous Structures • Convergent Evolution • Balancing Selection

  41. Question 2 • Islands will generally have many species of plants and animals that are…? • Weird looking • Vestigial • Repulsivary • Endemic • Heterozygotes

  42. Question 2 • Islands will generally have many species of plants and animals that are…? • Weird looking • Vestigial • Repulsivary • Endemic • Heterozygotes

  43. Question 3 • Camouflage is an example of… • Evolutionary Adadptions • Cool Traits • Uniformitarianism • Homology • Relative Fitness

  44. Question 3 • Camouflage is an example of… • Evolutionary Adadptions • Cool Traits • Uniformitarianism • Homology • Relative Fitness

  45. Question 4 • Biogeography is evidence for what? • Evolution • Convergent Evolution • Catastrophism • Uniformitarianism • Fossils

  46. Question 4 • Biogeography is evidence for what? • Evolution • Convergent Evolution • Catastrophism • Uniformitarianism • Fossils

  47. Question 5 • Each branch represents what in an evolutionary tree? • A common ancestor • A common trait • A convergent evolution • A death of a species • A new kingdom of animals

  48. Question 5 • Each branch represents what in an evolutionary tree? • A common ancestor • A common trait • A convergent evolution • A death of a species • A new kingdom of animals

  49. Question 6 • Charles Darwin is most famous for being the father of what branch of science? • Paleontology • Evolution • Atomic engineering • Zoology • Genetics

  50. Question 6 • Charles Darwin is most famous for being the father of what branch of science? • Paleontology • Evolution • Atomic engineering • Zoology • Genetics