Chapter 9 Government
Presidential Leadership • 9.1 Presidential Powers • 9.2 Roles of the President • 9.3 Styles of Leadership
9.1 Presidential Powers • Constitutional Powers • Informal Sources of Power • Limits on Presidential Power
Constitutional Powers • The Founders wanted a strong executive branch to hold the legislative branch in check. • Article II grants the president broad but vaguely described powers.
Constitutional Powers • He heads the executive branch, is commander in chief, conducts foreign policy, and has judicial powers.
Informal Sources of Power • Presidents have added to their powers by their actions. • During national crises, presidents like Lincoln, FDR, and George W. Bush greatly expanded the powers of the presidency.
Informal Sources of Power • Modern presidents claim their ideas and policies represent a mandate from the people. • They use all forms of mass media to build support for their ideas.
Limits on Presidential Power • Congress limits presidential authority by overriding vetos. • It can also impeach and remove a president from office for clear abuse of power. • The federal courts also limit the president’s power.
Only two presidents have ever been impeached. • Andrew Johnson • Bill Clinton
What about Richard Nixon? • He resigned before the House could impeach him.
Limits on Presidential Power • The federal courts also limit the president’s power. • The Supreme Court can overturn presidential actions. Ex: Truman in Youngstown SheetandTube v. Sawyer (1952).
What decision did the Supreme Court make against Truman in Youngstown SheetandTube v. Sawyer (1952)?
Limits on Presidential Power • The federal bureaucracy can limit presidential power by obstructing programs or failing to carry them out properly. • Public opinion can limit the president’s actions.Ex: LBJ’s policies in Vietnam
9.2 Roles of the President • Seven Key Roles of the President • Head of State • Chief Executive • Chief Legislator • Economic Planner • Party Leader • Chief Diplomat • Commander-in-Chief
Seven Key Roles of the President • Head of State • Chief Executive • Chief Legislator • Economic Planner • Party Leader • Chief Diplomat • Commander-in-Chief
Head of State • The president represents the nation at ceremonial functions. • He is a symbol of the entire United States.
Chief Executive • The President heads the 2 million person executive branch. • He influences how laws are executed through executive orders, presidential appointments, removal of appointed officials, and impoundment. • He grants pardons, reprieves, or amnesty.
Chief Legislator • The President proposes legislation to Congress, usually in the State of the Union Address. • He must work harder for congressional support when the opposition party controls Congress.
Chief Legislator • He may use political favors to gain congressional support. • He has the threat of the veto to influence Congress.
Economic Planner • The President has gained great economic powers since the New Deal. • He promotes high employment, production, and purchasing power. • He is required to prepare the federal budget each year.
Party Leader • The President helps raise party funds and plan campaign strategies. • He uses political patronage to appoint party members to government jobs.
Chief Diplomat • The President directs foreign policy and oversees foreign affairs information agencies. • He has sole power to make treaties, with Senate approval.
Chief Diplomat • He may make executive agreements with foreign nations. • Executive agreements have the force of treaties but do not require congressional approval.
Chief Diplomat • He has the sole power to recognize foreign governments.
Commander-in-Chief • The President has the power to wage (not declare) war and makes key military policy decisions. • He supports war efforts on the home front during wars. • He may use the military to end disorders or help in natural disasters.
9.3 Styles of Leadership • Increased Responsibilities • Leadership Qualities and Skills • Presidential Isolation • The Use of Executive Privilege
Increased Responsibilities • The Founders expected Congress to lead the nation. • Modern presidents have provided strong leadership for the nation. • Presidents provide leadership in introducing bold new ideas. • They also respond to crises at home and abroad.
Leadership Qualities and Skills • Presidents must know and understand the people of the United States. • They must be able to communicate effectively and to explain their policies clearly in order to inspire public support.
Leadership Qualities and Skills • Presidents must know when the time is right to introduce new policies or make key decisions.
Leadership Qualities and Skills • Successful presidents must: • be flexible and open to new ideas; • be able to compromise; • have political courage • be willing to go against public opinion when they think it is necessary for the nation’s interests.
Presidential Isolation • The special treatment risks isolating presidents from information and advice they should have to carry out their duties effectively. • Presidents may discourage staffers from disagreeing with them or giving them unpleasant advice.
Presidential Isolation • Advisers sometimes flatter the president with only good news and favorable opinions to maintain access to the president. • Top staffers or advisors control access to the president. • Dealing with White House staff is time-consuming.
The Use of Executive Privilege • Presidents invoke executive privilege to keep discussions and advice confidential.
The Use of Executive Privilege • Modern presidents have claimed that executive privilege also protects their communications with other members of the executive branch.
The Use of Executive Privilege • The Supreme Court has ruled that executive privilege is constitutionally based.