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Joints PowerPoint Presentation

Joints

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Joints

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  1. Joints Articulations

  2. Functions • Hold the bones together securely • Give the rigid skeleton mobility

  3. Joint Classification According to “Function” • Synarthroses – immovable joints • Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints • Diarthroses – freely movable joints

  4. Joint Classification According to “Structure” • Fibrous • Cartilaginous • Synovial – freely movable

  5. Fibrous Joints • Generally immovable • Fibrous tissue • Skull sutures • Syndesmoses – • longer than the fibers found in sutures • more “give”

  6. Cartilaginous Joints • Bone ends connected by cartilage • Slightly movable (amphiarthrotic) • Pubic symphysis • Intervertebral joints • Immovable (synarthrotic) • Epiphyseal plates of growing long bones

  7. Synovial Joints • Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. • Has four distinguishing features • Articular cartilage • Fibrous articular capsule • Joint cavity • Reinforcing ligaments

  8. Synovial Joint Features

  9. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Plane joint • Hinge joint (uniaxial) • Pivot joint • Condyloid joint (biaxial) • Saddle joint • Ball-and-socket joint (multiaxial)

  10. Plane Joint • Articular surfaces are flat • Short slipping or sliding movements • Intercarpal and intertarsal joints http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/GLIDING.JPG

  11. Hinge Joint • Cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another bone • Angular movement in one plane http://sciencefun4all.net/Life_Sci/06Skel_MuscSys/JournalTopics/5Joints.html

  12. Pivot Joint • Rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone. • Rotating bone turns around its long axis • uniaxial http://ovrt.nist.gov/projects/vrml/h-anim/joint1D.gif

  13. Condyloid Joint • Egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another. • Side to side; back and forth motions http://ovrt.nist.gov/projects/vrml/h-anim/joint1B.gif

  14. Saddle Joint • Articular surfaces have both convex and concave areas. • Biaxial • Same motion as condyloid joints http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/SADDLE.JPG

  15. Ball-and-Socket Joint • Spherical head fits in a round socket. • Allow movement in all axis. http://sciencefun4all.net/Life_Sci/06Skel_MuscSys/Images/Joints/BALLSOCK.jpg

  16. Inflammatory Disorders of Joints

  17. Bursitis • Inflammation of the bursae • “water on the knee” • Falling on your knee

  18. Sprain • Excessive stretching or tearing of ligaments and tendons • Poor blood supply therefore slow healing process

  19. Arthritis • Symptoms • Pain • Stiffness • Swelling of the joint • Chronic Types • Osteoarthritis (OA) • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) • Gouty arthritis (gout)

  20. Osteoarthritis (OA) • “wear-and-tear” arthritis • Softening, fraying, and breaking down of articular cartilage • Exposed bone thickens (bone spurs) • Bone spurs protrudes into joint cavity • irreversible

  21. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) • Autoimmune disease – body’s immune system attacks own tissue • Unknown trigger – maybe viral or bacterial • Cartilage destroyed forming scar tissue • Scar tissue fuses (ankylosis) causing deformities

  22. Rheumatoid Arthritis http://www.glucosamine-arthritis.org/graphics1/RAHands.jpg

  23. Gouty Arthritis (Gout) • Uric acid accumulates in the blood • Needle-shaped crystals in soft tissues in joints • Great toe • Genetic