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GUATEMALA PowerPoint Presentation

GUATEMALA

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GUATEMALA

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  1. GUATEMALA Image Retrieved from http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/world-countries-flags/guatemala-flag.gif

  2. Photograph: Noah Friedman-Rudovsky/Oxfam Domingo Tamupsis "The money I make is not enough to feed us," he says. "We feed the children first because the girls cry so much when they are hungry, but it's not enough and I think that's why they get ill and don't thrive. I don't know where to get more money: I can't work any harder and I can't steal because they shoot you if you steal." PovertyMattersBlog, Guatemala pays high price for global food system failings, By Felicity Lawrence on May 31st, 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/may/31/global-food-crisis-guatemala-system-failure

  3. Félix Pérez, 51 “Every day its more difficult to survive since we live off the land, and there’s less and less,” he said

  4. Gilberto Galindo Morales, 46 • Nearby plantations divert and deplete rivers to feed industrial-scale irrigation systems making farming difficult for small farmers • Ash from burning cane fields after harvest damages his corn crop and irritates his children’s lungs, he said. “I’m trying not to because I need that land to grow corn.” Image Retrieved from https://www.nytsyn.com/photo_previews/0087/9874/879874_525_380_w.jpg

  5. Guatemala • Means “land of trees” • Located in Central America • Bordered by Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, & Belize • Population of roughly 14 million • Has an area of 108,890 square kilometers (42,043 square miles), slightly smaller than the state of Tennessee. Image Retrieved from http://d2z7bzwflv7old.cloudfront.net/cdn/bWFwcy9lbi9ndC9ndC1hcmVhLmdpZg%3D%3D/bWF4Vz00MDA%3D_x_htp.jpg

  6. Country’s History • 3 distinct time periods • Mayan indigenous • Spanish colonial • Modern republic • Includes much of the old Mayan civilization; dates back to 300 B.C. Image Retrieved from http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/mayan-ruins--tikal-guatemala-juergen-weiss.jpg

  7. Mayan Period • Featured highly developed architecture, painting, sculpture, music, mathematics, a 365-day calendar, roads, and extensive trade • Ancient Mayan civilization collapsed around 900 A.D. • Ancient natives lived throughout Central America • Grew maize (corn) as their staple crop • Commonly consumed amaranth, a cereal grain Image Retrieved from http://www.terraexperience.com/images/Calendars/Calendars/2007_Guatemala_Calendar.jpg

  8. Spanish Colonial to Modern Republic • 1523-24: Spanish conquistador, Pedro de Alvarado defeats the Maya, turning Guatemala into a Spanish colony • 1839: Guatemala becomes fully independent • 1873-85: Justo Rufino Barrios, modernizes the country • 1898-1920: Manuel Estrada Cabrera, early encouragement of reform, later developed into a lust for power • 1931-44: Jorge Ubico, continued the work of Barrios • 1944: Juan Jose Arevalo, introduces social-democratic reforms • 1951: Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, continues Arevalo’s reforms • 1954: Colonel Carlos Castillo, discontinues land reform • 1960-96: 36-year long civil war

  9. Agricultural History • 1870s: Bananas are introduced and soon become the “miracle fruit” • After 1945: Sugarcane became a successful agricultural crop • 1976-78: Numerous earthquakes & Hurricane Greta cause massive damage to plantations • 1980s: Encouraged to pursue growth through agricultural exports • 2001: Month-long drought leads to nearly an 80% crop loss throughout countries of Central America • 2005: Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) was signed with the U.S. and took effect on Jan. 1st, 2006 • 2006: New report identifies fertilizer runoff from commercial agricultural plantations • 2008: Central American leaders are warn of the climbing food and oil prices possibly unraveling recent economic gains

  10. Pre-contact Maya Diet • Based on 3 meals • 2 meals were beverages made from a nixtamalized maize dough • 3rd meal, the evening meal, was either a soup or a stew accompanied by a tamale or tortilla Image Retrieved from http://clccharter.org/kurt1/ancient%20civilization/Maya/Corncobs.jpg

  11. Today’s Guatemalan Diet • Corn continues to be a staple food • Most often consumed as a tortilla • Atole corn beverages are very popular as well • Other staples include • Beans • Rice • Root vegetables • Fresh fruit is eaten occasionally • Very little meat consumed • Fish/Seafood is more commonly found along the coastlines

  12. Image Retrieved from http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2499/3754280234_089be3dff8_o.jpg

  13. Guatemalan Diet Affected By Other Cultures • Typical Mexican dishes, such as • Enchiladas • Guacamole • Empanadas • Most Guatemalan cities and towns have at least one Chinese restaurant • American diet of fast food

  14. Guatemalan Food Staples Corn Beans Chili Image Retrieved from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_juYKHguwZHQ/TQ4xu3C-TnI/AAAAAAAAAnQ/LVjg0QOhzHQ/s1600/DSCN4508.JPG Image Retrieved from http://www.ourplanet.com/imgversn/84/images/lopez1.gif Image Retrieved from http://globalgrandmotherpower.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/17-Dec22sm.jpg

  15. What Changed? • Prior to the 1980s, Guatemala was self-sufficient in corn production • Since the 1980s, the country has become a huge corn importer Images retrieved from http://thinkprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/corn_guatemala.jpg and http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2013/01/06/world/bull-guatemala1/bull-guatemala1-articleLarge.jpg

  16. Besides food, where is corn used… • Ethanol, Industrial alcohol • Soap, Insecticides • Paper products, Textiles • Explosives • Ceramics, Adhesives • Plastics, Tires, Abrasive paper • Antibiotics, Aspirin, Disinfectant

  17. Ethanol Production • 1 bushel of corn yields about 2.5 gallons of fuel ethanol • Roughly 130 bushels of corn are produced per acre • Ethanol yields 1.34 units of energy Information Retrieved from http://www.clover.okstate.edu/fourh/aitc/lessons/upper/cornmath.pdf and http://www.michfb.com/files/education/factcards/corn.pdf

  18. World Ethanol Consumption • In 2011, the world consumed 1,405,600 barrels per day • Guatemala produced 4,000 barrels per day and consumed NONE

  19. Group Project • Please work in groups to find the answers to the questions given. • Be prepared to explain how you got to your answers

  20. Consequences of global biofuel expansion • Accounted for 20-40% of corn price increases seen in 2007-8 • $6.6 billion borne by developing countries • Guatemala absorbed $91 million in ethanol-related costs • Dependence grew from 9% in the early 1990s to nearly 40% today

  21. What is happening?

  22. Palm Plantations • Palm oil has also become a contributor to biofuel production • According to estimates by the National Institute for Agrarian and Rural Studies in Guatemala City: • Land given to palm production towards the biofuel industry has grown by 146% in a 5-year period (2005-10) A worker carries palm fruit near the town of Tiquisate, Guatemala. Photograph: Noah Friedman-Rudovsky/Oxfam

  23. Food Access and Concerns • Guatemala has struggled to address chronic and sporadic levels of undernutrition in the population • An average of 82% of daily calories is coming from corn, beans, rice, and tubers • However, urban areas are starting to adopt diet characteristics seen in North America • Complications of social factors such as • Geographical isolation • Ethnic diversity • Household characteristics • Water quality greatly affects incidence of infectious diseases and diarrhea

  24. Nutritional Implications • Roughly 50% of children are chronically malnourished • Retarded growth & stunting • 1 in 4 children suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) • Impairs physical growth, cognitive development, immune system, motor development, coordination, language development, and overall scholastic achievement • Adults are also affected by IDA • 20.2% of women are affected • Vitamin A & B12 deficiencies are common

  25. Tell us something • What did you know about Guatemala and/or the biofuel industry before today? • How did learning more about this issue affect you?

  26. Additional References • PovertyMattersBlog, Global food crisis: Palm rush proves costly for Guatemala's small farmers, By Felicity Lawrence on May 31st, 2011http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/may/31/global-food-crisis-palm-oil-guatemala • www.eid.gov/cfapps/ipdproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=79&pid=79&aid=1 • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1215811.stm • http://www.pbs.org/newshar/updates/latin_america/jan-jun11/timeline_03-07.html • The many, many uses for corn. By cecilia Paasche. Retrieved from http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/08/27/corn-drought/ • www.extension.org/pages/14044/corn-ethanol-production • http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/wp/12-02WiseGlobalBiofuels.pdf • http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/interactive/2011/jun/01/global-food-crisis-interactive • http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Americas/Guatemala-HISTORY.html#b • http://www.foodbycountry.com/GermanytoJapan/Guatemala.html#b#ixzz2MbGJPKoS • http://www.foodbycountry.com/GermanytoJapan/Guatemala.html#b#ixzz2MbI041wN • http://gocentralamerica.about.com/od/guatemalaguide/p/Guatemala_Food.htm • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107596.html#ixzz2Mb9M42v5 • McDonald, M.R. (2009). Food Culture in Central America. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press. • http://gocentralamerica.about.com/od/guatemalaguide/ss/Guatemala_Food_10.htm • As biofuel deman grows, so do Guatemala’s hunger pangs. NY Times article. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/06/science/earth/in-fields-and-markets-guatemalans-feel-squeeze-of-biofuel-demand.html • http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?iso3=GTM