In-Groups/Out-Groups Stereotypes, Prejudice, Discrimination
Reasons for Rivalries • Geographic Proximity • Frequent Meetings in Important Games • Events that Increased tension between groups • Pre-existing Social and Political Tensions • 10 Great Sporting Rivalries
Football: FSU vs. UF • Two Oldest Public Universities in Florida • One or both of them often highly ranked • (1994) Choke at Doak Game • 28 Points from FSU in the last quarter to tie game 31-31 • The Comeback - FSU vs. UF
Feeding an Old RivalryAuburn vs. Alabama • Roll Tide/War Eagle • The Iron Bowl • Alabama vs. Auburn • 1893 • SEC Division • Rivalries and In-Group Bias.
Case Study: Barcelona – Real Madrid • Barcelona - Real Madrid • Why could this rivalry be considered more than just a soccer match? Provide details from the video. • How has the rivalry changed over time?
Case Study: AC Milan vs. Inter Milan • Italian Derby • Inter first allowed players from other countries to play when AC Milan wouldn’t • Differences have dissipated since their first match in 1908, but tension remains.
Case Study: The Old FirmCeltic F.C. vs. Rangers F.C. • Celtic vs. Rangers - More than a Game • Location: Glasgow, Scotland • Roots of Conflict • National Identity: Native Scots (Rangers) – Scots Irish (Celtic) • Religious Affiliation: Protestants (Rangers) – Catholics (Celtic) • Video: • The Football Wars
Case Study: Rivalries and HistoryAli vs. Frazier • (1971)“Fight of the Century” • Both undefeated • Extension of tension in the country • Ali came to represent the movement against Vietnam. Frazier became symbol for conservative America • Frazier won. • (1974) Rematch: Ali won. • (1975) Final Fight: Ali won in the Philippines • Frazier vs. Ali - Rivals
Case Study: Rivalries and History Miracle On Ice • Sport: Hockey • U.S vs. Soviet Union • Key Match: 1980 Winter Olympic Games Semifinal • Importance: • Cold War Era • Competition between countries. • U.S as the underdog story. • Miracle On Ice
Case Study: India vs. PakistanSports as a microcosm of the world • India-Pakistan Conflict • Fight over region of Kashmir. • Both countries have nuclear weapons • Conflict Analysis - India vs. Pakistan • Tension in the India/Pakistan border • Rivalry in Sports • How do people live the rivalry?
Group Behavior Affects Conflict:Conformity to our Group • Important Studies: • Solomon Asch • Group Pressure • Stanley Milgram • Obedience to Authority • Irving Janis • Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue. • How are group pressure, obedience to authority and groupthink part of our allegiance as fans to a team?
65% of subjects administered what they thought was lethal voltage on the shock machine. Milgram described the dilemma as a conflict between conscience and authority.
I Think, You Think, We ThinkGroupthink •Groupthink: the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. Characteristics of groupthink include: • Illusion of invulnerability • Collective rationalization • Belief in inherent morality • Stereotyped views of out-groups • Direct pressure on dissenters • Self-censorship • Illusion of unanimity • Self-appointed mindguards
Groupthink: Illusion of Invulnerability • Creates excessive optimism that encourages taking extreme risks.
Groupthink: Collective Rationalization • Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions.
Groupthink: Belief in Inherent Morality • Belief that whatever the group does it will be right as they all know the difference between right and wrong. • Tendency to overlook the consequences of what they decide. • Are we born good people or is morality taught?
Groupthink: Stereotyped views of out-groups • Negative views of those who are different creates conflict. • Question: Are we born to hate or are we taught to hate?
Groupthink: Direct Pressure on Dissenters • Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the group’s views.
Groupthink: Self-censorship • Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed • Why could self-censorship be problematic on the long run?
Groupthink: Illusion of unanimity • The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous.
Groupthink: Self-appointed mindguards • Member of a group who serves as an informational filter, providing limited information to the group and, consciously or subconsciously, utilizing a variety of strategies to control dissent
IN-GROUPS and OUT-GROUPS “We all see only that which we are trained to see.”
In-Groups and Out-Groups • Social Identity • Social categorization divide world into in-group (“us”) and out-group (“them”) • When do we start categorizing? • Video - Categorization at a Young Age?
In-Groups and Out-groups • Sport rivalries feed on the distinctions between in-groups and out-groups. So do other conflicts. • An in-group is a social group commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty; it is the one we identify with. • An out-group is a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition. • In-group bias: view our own group more favorably
Jane Elliott's "blue eyes/brown eyes“In-Groups vs. Out-Groups • 3rd Grade Teacher Jane Elliott • Experiment conducted on the days after Martin Luther King assassination (1968) • Wanted to explain discrimination to 8 year olds. • Experiment deals with stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and the creation of in-group bias.
Glossary Stereotypes - beliefs about attributes that are thought to be characteristic of members of particular groups. A mental image or judgment of a group based on opinion without regard to individual differences. They can be either positive or negative. ex. Women are nurturing, car salesmen are dishonest Prejudice - A negative judgment or opinion formed about a group without knowledge of the facts. Discrimination - Treating someone less favorably based on the group, class or category they belong to. Discrimination is prejudice in action.
Stereotypes • A mental image of a group based on opinion without regard to individual differences. • Oversimplification or exaggeration about a group of people • They can be either positive or negative. • If individuals differ from stereotype, they are treated as exceptions. Which of these stereotypes are attributed to males and which ones to females? • Aggressive • Dependent • Easily Influenced • Dominant • Passive • Home-oriented • Talkative • Tough • Rarely Cries • Emotional • Cruel
Examples of Stereotypes People: • Mothers serving meals to their families • Boys playing with action figures • Men working on their cars Things and Places: • All inner cities are corrupt and sinful • Small towns are safe and clean
Prejudice • A negative judgment or opinion formed about a group without sufficient knowledge • It is the attitude that we have towards other groups • It is based on stereotypes
Forms of Prejudice • Sexism :prejudice based on a person’s biological gender • Racism: prejudice based on a person’s ethnicity • Sectarianism : prejudice based on a person’s religious background and/or political beliefs • Homophobia : prejudice based on a person’s sexual orientation • Disability Prejudice: Prejudice based on a person’s physical or mental abilities • Ageism: prejudice based on a person’s age • What forms of prejudice are more preponderant in society today?
Sexism • Prejudice based on a person’s biological gender • Belief that one sex is by nature superior to another
Sexism and the Wage Gap • Level of women’s income relative to that of men. • 1960s: women earned 60 cents for every dollar earned by men • Today: women earn 77-80 cents for every dollar earned by men
Sexism and the Glass Ceiling • Invisible barrier that prevents women from gaining upper-level positions in business • Women and Sports: Journalism • Males: Is there prejudice towards women’s opinions in sports? What about other topics? • Females: Do you feel any prejudice when voicing your opinions about sports? What about other topics?
Disability Prejudice • Discuss: • Do you think professional sports should strive to incorporate people with disabilities in their competitions or should it provide more competitions for disabled people?
Ageism • Ageism in Work Interviews • Prejudice based on a person’s age. • How does ageism affect you? • How does ageism affect athletes, both old and young?
Nazi Germany Olympic Games (1936) • German Olympic Games • Why did Germany wanted to host the Olympic Games in 1936? • Why could this event be considered as more than just a sporting event?
Homophobia • Prejudice based on a person’s sexual orientation • Homophobia in the Russian Olympic Games • Is it the government’s role to defend those who are being discriminated by other nations? • What is the role of athletes in this debate? Some say they should boycott the Games. Do you agree with it?
Forms of Prejudice • Come up with at least one real life example for any three of the following forms of prejudice: • Sexism • Racism • Sectarianism • Homophobia • Disability prejudice • Ageism
Sourcing the Problem Stereotypes, Ideas, and Beliefs Attitudes and Emotions Prejudice Discrimination
Discrimination • Discrimination is the unfair treatment of an individual because of his/her membership of a particular group • Discrimination is prejudice in action
Robert Merton: Patterns of Prejudice and Discrimination • The Active Bigot • Prejudiced and Openly discriminatory • The Timid Bigot • Prejudiced, but is afraid to discriminate because of society’s pressures • The Fair-Weather Liberal • Not prejudiced but discriminates anyway because of society’s pressures • The All-Weather Liberal • Not prejudiced and does not discriminate
Direct vs. Indirect Discrimination • Direct discrimination happens when someone is treated unfavorably because of a personal characteristic protected by the law. • Example: An employer advises an employee that they will not be trained to work on new machinery because they are too old to learn new skills. The employer has discriminated against the employee by denying them training in their employment on the basis of their age. • Indirect discrimination an unreasonable requirement, condition or practice is imposed that disadvantages a person or group because of a personal characteristic. • Example: A store requires customers to produce photographic identification in the form of a driver’s license before collecting an order. This may disadvantage a person with a vision impairment who is not eligible to hold a driver’s license.
Discrimination in Society • Legal Discrimination • System of laws in a society allows for discrimination to occur • Ex. Apartheid in South Africa • Laws in South Africa distinguished political, economic, and legal rights of white and non-white South Africans • Apartheid Laws • Institutionalized Discrimination • When discrimination and inequality become part of the social structure • No necessity for dominant group to intentionally dominate minority group. • More difficult to change because it runs deeper than the laws created. • White Privilege: the advantages that whites receive because of their skin color. • Accumulation of Wealth
Case Study: South Africa Under Apartheid • It was a system of government in South Africa from 1948 to 1990. • This Afrikaans word means separation: the whites were separated from the black Africans and minorities. • The white minority ruled the country and the black majority did not have many rights.
How did the world react to Apartheid? • A lot of countries boycotted South Africa during Apartheid: they refused to buy its products. • Film and pop stars refused to perform in South Africa