ITU-T Workshop on Delivering Good Quality Telecommunication Service in a Safe Environment in Africa(Nairobi, Kenya, 26 July – 27 July 2010 ) EMF MEASURING IN KENYA Derick simiyu khamali Compliance and Enforcement Officer Communications Commission of Kenya
Introduction • Kenya has a Memorandum of understanding between Radiation Protection Board (RPB) and Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) to address issues of RF Emissions from telecommunications infrastructure. • CCK and RPB have adopted various ways to deliver on this mandate through field monitoring & measurements • The basis is on the reports received from NEMA on EIA any other complaint from the Public or perceived.
Non Ionising Radiation Measurements - NIR The Commission measures EMF Radiation levels from Communication installations country wide. The aim is to ascertain the performance by different operators in view of human safety, health and environmental welfare. This is done by Random sampling and visits to several masts/towers and antenna installations.
Why NIR Monitoring • Due to public concern after the Commission licensed more GSM operators who rolled out their network by building towers all over to satisfy growing demand. • The resistance that operators were facing from the public whenever they wanted to establish new installations especially in residential places. • Due to corporate responsibility to ensure quality telecommunication services are delivered in a safe and healthy environment.
Objectives of NIR Monitoring • To ascertain public safety as part of the consumer protection obligations. • To assure and alleviate any public fears whenever installations are coming up. • To support the operators and ensure network roll out is not hampered.
Common Concerns and Areas of Interest: Markets and shopping malls. Schools, hospitals, sports grounds and other public amenities. Residential areas Protected zones like Embassies, military and other sensitive facilities.
Final Reports • These are filed in the inspection reports file and also kept in soft copy. • Each case stays as an open case until follow-ups on compliance are finalized. • Future inspections are pegged on the basis filed and any new developments.
FIELD DATA COLLECTION The Following procedure is adopted: • Initial field strength & site review is done in the office prior to site visit using EIA reports received from NEMA. Adhoc sites are managed on the ground. • Line of sight is established on ground w.r.t antenna Azimuth & measurement points are determined using a compass & GPS • Normally two points are selected at about 100m and 200m from the base of the mast
Results Data collected is analysed using specialised software and the reports are automatically generated. The results are compared with WHO & ICNIRP Thresholds to determine site Compliance & Non Compliance.
MONITORING TOOLS The Commission uses the following tools: • RAHAM – Radaition Hazard Metre • Spectrum Analyzer – FSH 18
RAHAM PERFORMANCE The Raham has two antenna Probes with gauges for 18GHz and 48 GHz. The measurements are taken by pointing the probe to the antenna/mast. The measurements take 6 minutes and are recorded in terms of power density – W/m. The system can also be set manually to report other parameters and units.
RAHAM SET UP • One key component is the GPS that records the geographical data of every site and point visited. • The Raham has two antenna Probes Covering different Ranges of the frequency spectrum. A) Ranges from 100KHz to 3 GHz B) Ranges from 3GHz to 18GHz.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER The Commission uses FSH 18 model from Rhode and Schwartz. The spectrum range monitored is from 9KHz to 7.5GHz. The unit has five antennas to fit this range as detailed in other slides below.
FSH 18 PERFORMANCE The measurements are taken by pointing the probe to the suspect source - antenna/mast. The measurements are taken instantaneously and with respect to the specific operator frequencies. The data collected is analysed to ascertain compliance.