Cooking Food These icons indicate that detailed teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.
Cooking on the hob – boiling and simmering • Place food in pan with just enough water, stock or other liquid to cover it. • Turn the heat up high to bring it to the boil. • When it is boiling, turn the heat down very low so that the liquid just stays boiling – this is called simmering. • Cover the pan to keep the water in, leave it uncovered if you want to reduce the amount of water.
Cooking on the hob – shallow frying • Place a little oil in the pan and heat it gently. • Never walk away from the oil – if it gets too hot it could catch fire. • Make sure the food is dry when you add it or the oil will spit. • Lift the food out with a slotted spoon and place it on kitchen paper to soak up excess oil.
Deep frying • Deep fried foods are high in fat. • Less fat is absorbed if the oil is very hot when the food is put into it. • Meat and fish may need a protective coating of batter or crumbs. • Deep fat fryers are safer because they control the oil temperature. • Food should be drained on kitchen paper. Chips and other ‘fast food’ items are often deep fried.
Stir frying Stir frying is often used in Chinese cookery. • Food is cut into small pieces so that it cooks quickly. • A little oil is heated in a wok or frying pan. • Food is cooked quickly at a very high temperature. • Stir fried foods keep more of their vitamin content because they are cooked quickly.
Steaming • Steamed food is cooked over boiling water, either on a hob or in an electric steamer. • The steam rises and cooks the food without it being actually in the water. • The food keeps more of its water soluble vitamins. • Steamers are economical with fuel because several foods can be cooked at once in layers.
Poaching Poached food is cooked in a shallow pan of simmering liquid, which can be flavoured. It is a good way of cooking: • eggs • fish • some fruits, such as pears and peaches.
Grilling Grilled food can be cooked indoors on a grill or outdoors on a barbeque. It is a good way of cooking tender meat and poultry, fish and vegetables. Food is placed on a very hot grill until it browns, then the heat is turned down until the food is cooked through. Grilling is healthier than frying as it uses less fat.
Cooking in the oven Baked foods are cooked without adding any extra fat. You can bake: • bread, pastry and cakes • fish • potatoes. These fish and chips have been baked in the oven. Roast foods are cooked with fat to give them a crispy surface. You can roast: • meat and poultry • potatoes and other root vegetables.
Casseroles • Casserole cooking can make cheap tough cuts of meat really tender. • The meat and vegetables need to be browned quickly in a hot pan. • Water or stockis then added and brought to the boil. • The food is then transferred to an oven set at a lowtemperature and left to cook for several hours. • Slow cookers do a similar job. They can be plugged in and left all day.
Microwave cooking • Microwave ovens use microwaves to cook food. • Microwaves are radio waves. They are absorbed by fat, sugar and water but pass through glass, ceramics and plastic. • The waves are converted into heat energy and so the food cooks. • Metal reflects microwaves, so metal containers should not be used.
Is it cooked? Food thermometers can be useful to check if food is properly cooked. Push the thermometer into the deepest part of the food. It needs to be kept at 70OC for two minutes.
Summary • A cooker is made up of a hob,a grill and an oven. • The hob can be used for boiling, steaming, poaching and frying. • The oven can be used for baking and roasting. • Frying and roasting use added fat, so are not as healthy as other methods. • Microwave ovens use radio waves to cook food quickly. • Food thermometers can be used to check that food is cooked. • Kitchens are places where accidents happen – follow health and safety rules.