CHAPTER 11 The Islamic World Section 1: The Rise of Islam Section 2: The Spread of Islam Section 3: Islamic Civilization
Section 1: The Rise of Islam Objectives: • Describe how geography affected the people of the Arabian Peninsula. • Explain how Islam began. • Identify the main beliefs of Islam.
Section 1: The Rise of Islam Arabia: Its Geography and People • Mainly desert surrounded by Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
Section 1: The Rise of Islam The Prophet Muhammad • Vision and revelations • Hijrah – journey from Mecca to Yathrib
Section 1: The Rise of Islam The Faith of Islam • One God – submission to the will of God • Five Pillars of Islam • Jihad – struggle to defend the faith
Section 2: The Spread of Islam Objectives: • Explore how the Muslims expanded their empire. • Explain why the Islamic community divided.
Section 2: The Spread of Islam Expansion Under Abū Bakr and ‘Umar • Abū Bakr – Muhammad’s successor • ‘Umar succeeded Abū Bakr – conquered neighboring non-Muslim lands
Section 2: The Spread of Islam The Islamic Community Divides • Disagreements about who should be caliphs
Section 2: The Spread of Islam The Empire Continues to Spread • The Moors – Muslims in Spain • The Turks and Islam – conquered Syria, Mesopotamia, and much of Asia Minor
Section 3: Islamic Civilization Objectives: • Describe how the location of Arabia affected trade in the Muslim Empire. • Explain what Muslim society and family life were like. • Identify Muslim achievements in science. • Explore how Islam influenced Arab art and literature.
Section 3: Islamic Civilization A Culture of Traders • At center of world trade network that linked Europe, Asia, and Africa
Section 3: Islamic Civilization Government and Society • Qur’an governed religious life and daily life • Slavery was common • Muslim women enjoyed more freedoms than most other women • Polygamy was common
Section 3: Islamic Civilization The Sciences • Medicine – studied pharmaceutical drugs and dissection • Geography – astronomy, navigation, maps, astrolabe • Mathematics – Arabic number system, decimals
Section 3: Islamic Civilization The Arts • Calligraphy, architecture, geometric and floral patterns • The Thousand and One Nights – collection of folktales including “Sinbad the Sailor,” “Aladdin,” and “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves”