strategy tactics of integrative negotiation in n.
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Strategy & Tactics of Integrative Negotiation (IN) PowerPoint Presentation
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Strategy & Tactics of Integrative Negotiation (IN)

Strategy & Tactics of Integrative Negotiation (IN)

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Strategy & Tactics of Integrative Negotiation (IN)

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  1. Strategy & Tactics ofIntegrative Negotiation (IN) Integrate: To make whole or complete by adding together parts aka: win-win, mutual gains, variable sum, side-by-side negotiation; similar to “principled negotiation”

  2. Overview of Integrative Negotiation: Four Key Processes • Creating a free flow of information, r.t. concealment and selective presentation • Trying to understand the other’s real needs, and objectives r.t. their stated position • Emphasize common goals, objectives, and interests r.t. differences • Search for solutions that meet needs of all sides r.t. only your own, or blocking solutions that meet their needs (spite)

  3. Integrative Negotiation: Key Stages (Overview) • Identify and define the problem -- “half the battle”? • Understand the problem fully -- identify interests and needs. Discuss these instead of positions • Generate alternative solutions • Evaluate alternatives and select the best

  4. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 1 DetailsDefining the Problem • Define the problem for mutual acceptance • Keep it clean and simple; focus on what’s really important (not “bargaining chips”) • State the problem as a mutual goal and identify obstacles to its attainment • Depersonalize the problem -- “ownership” is an obstacle as it requires attacking the person to solve the problem • Separate the problem definition from the search for solutions; get agreement on the problem first

  5. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 2 DetailsUnderstand the Problem Fully • Various types of interests • Substantive • Process • Relationship • Principles

  6. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 2 Details(cont’d) • Some observations on interests • May be more than one type at issue • Parties can differ on types at stake • Interests are often based in deeply-rooted human values or needs (“think Maslow”?) • Interests can change • Getting at interests: Listen to “inner voice” and bring real interests to surface; consider theirs in same way

  7. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 3 DetailsGenerate Alternative Solutions • Be creative -- there are various approaches • Generating alternatives by redefining the problem(s) • Expand the pie • Logroll (trade issues) • Nonspecific compensation (side payment?) • Cut compliance costs for them • Find a bridge solution that addresses underlying interests r.t. resolving conflicting positions • Generating alternative solutions to the problem as given • Brainstorming • Nominal groups • Surveys

  8. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 3 DetailsSummary on Generating Solutions • No guarantee of finding a win-win solution. Communicate “firm flexibility.” How? • Use contentious tactics to establish firmness about basic interests • Signal flexibility and concern for their interests • Indicate willingness to change proposals if it helps bridge the gap in interests • Demonstrate problem-solving capacity • Maintain open communications • Reaffirm what’s important or fundamental • Reconsider aspects of your interests that are clearly unacceptable to them -- are they really essential?

  9. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 4 DetailsEvaluate and Select Solution • Narrow the range, eliminate unsupported solutions • Assess quality and acceptability -- use objective standards • Determine criteria first • Justify personal preferences -- “Why?” • Watch for intangibles’ influences

  10. IN’s Key Stages: Stage 4 Details(cont’d) • Use subgroups to evaluate options (6-8?) • Take time to cool off, but make your dissatisfactions known and discuss • Explore ways to “logroll” or combine options • (e.g., differences in desires, risk preferences, expectations, time preferences) • Keep decisions tentative ‘til all aspects complete • Minimize records and formality until final agreement, but then work out “single text”

  11. Factors That Facilitate Successful IN • Common, shared, or joint goal(s) • Faith in one’s own problem-solving ability; expertise and experience aid creativity • Accepting validity of their position • Motivation and commitment to work together (but this does not mean taking their goals as yours) • Trust • Clear and accurate communication • Understanding of the dynamics of IN (training works; DB tactics can be counterproductive at times)

  12. DB and IN: Can You “Mix & Match”? Actual NegotiationsDB IssuesIN Issues DB Tactics lots some IN Tactics some lots • Actual negotiations: Parties use both tactic types for both issue types, but tend to use “like with like” • Recall that most negotiations involve elements of both DB and IN; pure types are for textbooks! • Experts advise use of some DB tactics in IN, and some IN tactics always(e.g., “Principled Negotiations”) • Using DB tactics inappropriately in IN may cause suboptimal results -- win-win potential not fully realized