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Built Environment Sustainability Lecture 14

Built Environment Sustainability Lecture 14

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Built Environment Sustainability Lecture 14

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  1. Built Environment SustainabilityLecture 14

  2. Overview • Forces propelling change • Introduction to high performance buildings • The USGBC LEED Building Assessment Standard • Connection of technology and high performance green buildings • Key energy technologies • Building hydrologic cycle systems • Materials innovations • Indoor environmental quality strategies • Design for Deconstruction and Disassembly (DfDD) • Summary and Conclusions

  3. General Global Impacts • Rainforest loss: 1 acre/second • Temperate forest loss: 10 million acres/yr • 50% of all forests have disappeared • Grain production is falling • Over 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually • Fisheries are being depleted • Humankind is transforming the surface of the Earth, moving 2x as much material as nature • Global warming • Ozone depletion

  4. The 6th Major Extinction? • Fossil record indicates 5 major planetary extinctions: • Ordovician: 440 million years ago • Devonian: 365 million years ago • Permian: 245 million years ago • Triassic: 210 million years ago • Cretaceous: 66 million years ago • Is the 6th major planetary extinction underway? • And is it human instigated?

  5. The Oil Production Rollover Point • Time when the maximum production of oil occurs. • General forecasts are in next 5-15 years • Gasoline prices will rise rapidly: $10/gallon • Energy value of oil will be less than extraction energy • Huge emerging demand from growing economies: China and India

  6. The Built Environment • Comprised of: • Public and commercial buildings • Houses • Industrial plants • Infrastructure (roads, ports, airports) • Impacts (in U.S.) • 40% of extracted materials • 30% of electricity • 35% of total waste (construction & demolition)

  7. Sustainable Construction • Creating and maintaining a healthy, resource-efficient built environment based on ecological principles (CIB TG16, 1994) • Principles and foundation • Targets: Factor 4 and Factor 10 • Timeline: Seven generations or 200 years • All phases of the built environment

  8. Systems underpinning sustainable construction phases

  9. High Performance Green Buildings • Implementation of sustainable construction in buildings • Shift in language: High performance vs. green • Resource efficient: water, energy, materials, land, biota • Factor 10 Reduction: 292 kwhr/m2-yr to 29 kwhr/m2-yr • LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is the U.S. green or high performance building standard • U.S. Green Building Council is the proponent of LEED

  10. International Organizations • iiSBE: International Institute for a Sustainable Built Environment • CIB: Conseil Internaional du Batiment • Green Building Challenge (GBC)

  11. National Standards • UK: Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) –Building Research Establishment (BRE) • Japan: CASBEE • Australia: Green Star – Green Building Council of Australia • U.S.: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) – U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

  12. The U.S. Green Building Council • A non-profit promoting green building in the U.S. • Members: product manufacturers, academia, designers, local government, federal government • Creating a suite of LEED standards for new and existing buildings • http://www.usgbc.org

  13. The USGBC LEED Suite of Standards • LEED is a suite of standards • LEED-NC 2.1 New Construction • LEED-EB Existing Buildings • LEED-CI Commercial Interiors • LEED-CS Core and Shell • LEED-Residential (under development) • LEED-NC 2.1 Point System (69 Total Points) • Certified: 26 points • Silver: 33 points • Gold: 39 points • Platinum: 52 points • Created to assess buildings but actually serves to guide design and construction

  14. Growth of Green Building Activity, USGBC

  15. Rinker Hall as a HPB • Designed using the LEED Standard, first gold building in Florida • Will use 1/3 rd the energy of a UF building designed to “code” • Extensive daylighting strategy • Energy shedding building: façade wall as shading device • Automatic lighting controls: on/off, throttling • Stacked air handlers, full 0 to 100% capability • Waste heat recovery system • Advanced building automation system

  16. Rinker Hall (continued) • Materials: • Brick recycled from Hume Hall (demolished 2001) • Recycled asphalt paving and lime rock • Linoleum and recycled content carpet flooring • Designed for Deconstruction • Rainwater harvesting, waterless urinals, low flow fixtures • Capability for deconstruction

  17. Rinker Hall

  18. Rainwater Harvesting System

  19. Skylights and Roof

  20. Benefits of Green Buildings • Lower operating costs: energy, water, waste • Health implications • Workforce productivity • Marketplace comparability • Advantageous financing and incentives • Reductions in emissions • Reduced liability • Positive image

  21. More on Workforce Benefits • Cost of building: $22/ft2 • Energy costs: $2/ft2 • Cost of employees • $140 to $350/ft2 • 10% productivity boost: $14 to $35/ft2 added to bottom line • Problem: very difficult to prove the connection between health, green buildings, and productivity

  22. Technology and the HPB • HPB hold the promise for reduced total building cost and lowered environmental impacts • Both hard and soft technologies are needed to execute a HPB • Hard: products and materials • Soft: processes, methods, simulations • Surge of new products to support HPB design and construction • Movement in this direction is accelerating

  23. Key Energy Technologies • Ground coupling • Heat Pumping • Energy removal ventilators • Radiant cooling • CO2 sensors • Positive Displacement Ventilation • Daylight and occupancy sensor integration • Lights: sodium and LED

  24. Radiant Cooling – Thermal Image

  25. Radiant Cooling - Examples

  26. Radiant Cooling-Examples

  27. Energy Recovery Ventilator

  28. Building Hydrologic Cycle Systems • Rainwater harvesting • Ultra low flow fixtures • Greywater systems • Waterless systems • Integration of natural systems for stormwater uptake and waste processing • Infrared control technologies

  29. Rainwater Harvesting Roof drains Rainwater leaders Concrete cistern -under exterior stair Waterproofing – inside & out Overflow lines to storm system Hatch access for cleaning Make-up from water line

  30. Waterless Urinals

  31. Materials Innovations • Low emissions materials • Use of post-industrial waste in materials: fly ash, gypsum • Use of post-agricultural waste: straw • Products from rapidly renewing species: bamboo, aspen • Buildings that can be deconstructed • Products that can be disassembled, reused, and recycled • Sustainable Forestry

  32. Fly Ash Concrete – Marina City, Chicago

  33. Deconstruction and Reuse: U. of Florida • Brick (right) • Hume Hall demolition • Cleaned & palletized by Students • Stored for use • Irrigation PVC for brick weeps

  34. Rapidly Renewable Material, Certified Wood • Linoleum flooring • Wood doors from certified sustainable forest • Agriboard (pressed straw) cabinetry

  35. Indoor Environmental Quality Strategies • Broad spectrum approach: air, odors, noise, light, temperature, humidity, vibration, views • Low emissions materials • CO2 sensors

  36. IEQ: Daylighting Strategy

  37. CO2 Sensor – Fresh Air Intake Control

  38. Construction IAQ • Eliminate dust, dirt at ductwork • Store products off floor (drywall, insulation) • 100% outside air flush prior to occupancy • No smoking policy during construction

  39. Construction IAQ • Return air filter media • Temporary window protection • Temporary entrance grates

  40. Soft Technologies Simulation Whole Building Energy Simulation; DOE 2.1, Energy-10, Energy Scheming Solar Simulation: DHW, PV, BPV Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Daylighting and lighting Process: Design for deconstruction (DfD) Construction processes: waste, IEQ, erosion control, site disturbance

  41. Closing Materials Loops • Most challenging of all green building issues • Design for Deconstruction and Disassembly (DfDD) • Building Deconstruction: component reuse • Product Disassembly: materials recovery • Materials Recyclability • Coupled with Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)? • CIB Task Group 39 (Deconstruction) • www.cce.ufl.edu

  42. Source: Philip Crowther, TG39 Report, 2000 www.cce.ufl.edu

  43. Deconstruction

  44. Hume Hall Brick into Rinker Hall Wall