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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany

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Nazi Germany

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  1. Nazi Germany 1933 - 1945 By Mr Osbornewww.SchoolHistory.co.uk

  2. The use of Terror • The SS • an elite group of committed Nazis, used to eliminate the SA in June 1934 • charged with internal security • guarded concentration camps • hunted political enemies • commanded by Heinrich Himmler

  3. The use of Terror • The Gestapo • The secret state police. Used to suppress hostility to the regime at home and in occupied territories. • Commanded by Himmler

  4. The use of Terror • Concentration Camps • run by the SS to detain enemies of the state • Dachau 1933 • Prisoners Jews, political, priests, anti-socials • By 1939 six camps were operating. • Extermination Camps Auschwitz-Birkenau

  5. Role of Propaganda • The Press • all non Nazi newspapers and magazines were taken over or closed • all content was strictly controlled Radio All stations under state control. Cheap mass produced radios sold. Sets installed in cafes and factories. All Hitlers speeches broadcast.

  6. Role of Propaganda • Films : Over 100 000 made all approved by Goebbels. All films given a pro Nazi stance Ministry for Public Propaganda and Enlightenment

  7. Role of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels • Rallies and Campaigns • Annual rally at Nuremburg • 1936 Olympic Games, used as propaganda • Local rallies and fund raising led by the Hitler Youth and local party organisations • Posters used to promote Nazi ideals

  8. Role of Propaganda • Books and Art • writers, and composers persuaded or forced to produce works in praise of Hitler • Books written by Jews, Communists etc were banned and many destroyed in public book burning in 1933 • Jazz music banned because of its black origins

  9. Religion Protestant Churches: 1933 attempt by Hitler to gain control and establish a Reich Church. Reich Church was anti-Christian and promoted Nazism. Confessional Church founded in defiance of Nazis Nazi Part Attitudes Claimed to approve of Christianity and offer religious freedom. In fact attacked Churches and religious sects Catholic Church : Concordat 1933 in theory allowed Catholic Church to operate freely in return for an oath of loyalty. 1937 after a steady erosion of its influence Pope condemns Nazi’s. Never take a stand on Jewish persecutions

  10. Persecution of the Jews • Hitler blamed the Jews for • Treaty of Versailles • Inflation 1923 • Economic collapse 1929 -32

  11. Persecution of the Jews • 1933 - Unsuccessful boycott of Jewish shops • Jews excluded from Government jobs • Thousands of professional Jewish people were dismissed from jobs • 1934 - Jews banned from public places, parks, swimming pools etc.

  12. Persecution of the Jews • 1935 - The Nuremburg Laws 15 September • 1 - The Reich Law on citizenship - only those of German blood can be citizens, and have the right to vote. • 2- Law for the protection of German Blood and Honour - forbids marriage or sexual relations between Jews and German citizens

  13. Persecution of the Jews • 1936 - 37 • The professional activity of Jews is banned or restricted - includes vets, doctors, dentists, accountants, teachers and nurses • 1938 Qualifications of Jewish doctors is cancelled

  14. Persecution of the Jews • 1938 - Riechkristalnacht 9th November • Following the murder of a German diplomat in Paris by a Jew a campaign is started which last 3 days and targets Jewish shops, homes and synagogues. 90 killed 20 000 arrested and sent to concentration camps • Jewish children excluded form schools and Universities

  15. Persecution of the Jews • 1939 - Jews no longer allowed to run businesses and shops • forbidden to own radios and to buy cakes and chocolate • 1940 - 42 Jews deported from Germany Jews in occupied territories moved into ghettos and used as slave labour. Special SS groups formed to deal with the Jews. Gassing in vans starts

  16. Persecution of the Jews • The Wannsee Conference Jan 1942 • Decision taken by Nazi leaders led by Heydrichmeet to discuss the final solution • Decision to evacuate all Jews to extermination camps in Poland is taken • Over 4.5 million Jews killed in death camps

  17. Persecution of minorities • Homosexuals, Gypsies and other undesirables sent to concentration camps • Mentally ill sent to concentration camps • The Euthanasia programme • people judged worthless to the regime were killed. • 5,000 children 71, 000 adults • Stopped in 1941 after protest from Pope • Forced Sterilisation programme to prevent contamination of the Aryan race