Nazi Germany • Welcome back… • How was the Wave? • What did you think of it? • Remember it is a true story?
Review What events led to the rise Hitler in Nazi Germany. What were the Nuremberg Race Laws? What was Kristalnacht.
Housekeeping You will have a Quiz on Friday. Sorry, the tests aren’t completely finished yet. I really can’t go over it until everyone is done!
Words • Fascism • Social Darwinism( I Think you already have this one!) • Racism
Fascism • An Authoritarian system of government (a dictatorship) that includes: • Extreme Militarism and Nationalism • Rule of the Elite. • Totalitarian Society. • Rule of the Nation over the Individual. • Rejection of Liberalism, Socialism, Communism.
Fascism: (Political) • Under Fascism the leader has a cult like following. • Extreme Nationalism. • Organized Violence / War • Expanding of National Boundaries.
Fascism (Economic) • Government directed private enterprise that benefits the state. • Anti-Union, Anti- Worker Rights.
Fascism (Social) • Inequality between Social Classes. • Racial Purity. • Racial / National Superiority. • Collective strength over individual rights.
First Signs of Fascism Mussolini was the first person to use the term Fascism. The word comes from the Latin word Fasces, it means sticks around an Axe. An Ancient roman symbol of power.
Social Darwinism • An Ideology which promotes that notion that some groups achieve power and advantage over others because they are stronger and better.
Fascism Development Response to the development of Capitalism and Communism. In Italy and Germany, people felt that Democratic Government was weak. It led to WW1 and the devastation of these countries. Felt that they needed strong leadership to help with the economic and social problems.
After WW1 Europe had been devastated to an inch of it’s life. The German public / government was held responsible for the outcome of WW1. Let’s see what happened to Germany.
Peace • The Paris Treaty. (1919) • The victors met in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. • The powers and 28 other nations met to assess the cost of the war. • Decisions were made by the Big 4. • Consisted of the Big 4 (America, Britain, France, and Italy).
Cost… • The war had cost over 5 million deaths and 12 million injuries on the Allied side. • Thousands of bridges had been destroyed. • Infrastructure had devastated. • Also, the cost of cleaning the battle fields. • 300 000 km of barbed wire. • Shells and mines. • Bodies, Etc..
Disarmament Germans would withdraw from all occupied territories. Surrender all offensive weapons. The Allies would be able to have soldiers based across the Rhine. The Germans were forbidden to have Tanks, Submarines, or war planes. They could maintain a 100 000 person army for internal protection only.
Reparations Under the agreement, Germany was responsible for all cost of a damages caused by invasion. But, this would not allow countries like Canada and the US to get payments. So the terms were changed to include any country under German aggression. The Germans were ready to admit invasions, but not that they were aggressors. Merely, fighting in self defence.
Wow! The Germans were to pay 269 billion gold marks in 42 payments. ( that is 20 000 000 000 today!) This never came, as the final amount was dwindled down until it came to 53 million. Germany got more in loans from America then it actually paid back. The allies took gold, trucks, livestock, iron, and other natural resources.
German had to accept… • But, you can’t pay what you don’t have. • In 1923, Germany stopped paying. • At the same time the German Mark dropped do to mass printing.
Weimar Republic • The Government after WW1. • Ultra-inflation. • Loss of quality of life. • Mass Unemployment. • The People loss confidence in the Weimar Government. • A new party formed to go against the Weimar.
The National Socialist Party • In the 1920’s Hitler began giving lectures to the people of the Nazi Party. • 1923 – He attempts to take power by force. • Hitler is sent to prison and the Nazi part is banned. • In prison he wrote the book Mein Kampf.
Continued • 1925 – Hitler claimed to use only legal means to promote his ideas. • Support for the Nazi party began to grow. • Hitler blamed Scapegoats for the problems of Germany: • Jews • Gypsies • Homosexuals • Mentally and Physically Handicapped Individuals. • Feminist, Communist, Capitalist.
1933 – Begin the term of Hitler • 1933 – was democratically elected to the Leadership of Germany. • Hitler began his propaganda and began the enabling act. Which ended all freedoms in Germany. • Germany becomes a dictatorship.