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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany

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Nazi Germany

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  1. Nazi Germany Global History and Geography IV

  2. INTRODUCTION

  3. Anti-Intellectualism • A sentiment of hostility towards, or mistrust of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits • Attacks merits of science, education, literature • Not just about hating intellectualism: also about what values fill its place

  4. What would be the consequences of Anti-Intellectualism? • A society where -- • individual thought is compromised • the preservation of truth is minimal • authorities have more power • there is no challenge to the state

  5. Consequences of Anti-Intellectualism • Emergence of Pseudoscience • (i.e. Eugenics) • Rewriting of History • Destruction of Literature

  6. NAZI BOOK BURNINGS

  7. Why? • A way of venting anger • Symbolic transition of cultural values: Intellectualism to radical emotionalism • Unity through ritual • Intimidates intellectual community

  8. State Policy • May 10, 1933 • Nazi Party declares that any book ““which acts subversively on our future or strikes at the root of German thought, the German home and the driving forces of our people...” is to be burned. • Who would be the target of such a policy and why?

  9. The Burning Spectacle • Students marched through the streets rampaging libraries, synagogues, and even private homes to loot books

  10. Albert Einstein Havelock Ellis Lion Feuchtwanger Sigmund Freud André Gide Franz Kafka Erich Kästner Helen Keller Alfred Kerr Jack London Heinrich Mann Thomas Mann Karl Marx Hugo Preuss Marcel Proust Walter Rathenau Erich Maria Remarque Margaret Sanger Arthur Schnitzler Upton Sinclair Jakob Wasserman H. G. Wells Stefan Zweig Emile Zola Some Authors of Books Burned on 5/10/33

  11. EDUCATION INTHE THIRD REICH

  12. Nazi Education • The Curriculum • Racial biology and eugenics • Celebratory German history • Discipline, duty, obedience, courage • Physical training—Body over mind • No concern for the “spirit of academics” “The Jewish Nose is Wide at the End and Looks like the Number Six”

  13. The Nazi Classroom • Task of the Educator • Strengthen the soul and spirit of youth • Instill nationalism in younger generation • Root out values of… • Liberal individualism • Rationalism • Intellectualism • Trained children… • to be good soldiers • to benefit the state

  14. Adolf Hitler on Education • "Universal education is the most corroding and disintegrating poison that liberalism has ever invented” —-Adolf Hitler • "Through clever and constant application of propaganda, people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way round” —Adolf Hitler

  15. The Hitler Youth

  16. Clip From Triumph of the Will • Click image to see video on YouTube • Notice direction of film • Shows how admired Hitler is • Promotes radical emotionalism • Notice serious faces, militarism of young boys

  17. Necessity of Hitler Youth • Future of Nazi Germany was in its children • Composed of a generation that knew only Nazism • No need to suppress individual thinking • Trained: • Children for roles as Nazi citizens • Men for “Wehrsport” (Military training) • Women for Aryan motherhood

  18. The weak must be chiseled away. I want young men and women who can suffer pain...” -- Adolph Hitler

  19. Nazism

  20. Nazi Populism • “Whoever can conquer the street will one day conquer the state...” – Joseph Goebbels • Struggle against “privileged elite” • Intellectuals are elitists and tricksters

  21. The Volksgemeinschaft • “The People’s Community” • Established collective national spirit • Based on racial and national pride • Subliminal influence on culture • Bureaucratization of censorship & propaganda PEOPLE CANNOT BE ALLOWED TO THINK FOR THEMSELVES

  22. The Reichskulturkammer • “Reich Culture Chamber” • Managed by Hans Hinkel • Goals: • Promote “Good Culture” • Root out, ban “Bad Culture” • Compulsory membership for all members of German media

  23. Ministry of Propaganda • Spread and enforced Nazi ideology • Antithesis of intellectual-based culture • Rampant anti-Semitism • Infected all mediums of art and literature

  24. Goebbel’s The “Big Lie” Theory • “If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. The lie can be maintained only for such time as the State can shield the people from the political, economic and/or military consequences of the lie. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.”

  25. What is the Purpose of Nazi Propaganda? • public opinion must be molded to fit the state • Undo Intellectualism: • No “marketplace of ideas” • No tolerance of dissent • No ability to question authority • No independent thought • No formulation of rational ideas

  26. The Nuremberg Laws (1935) • Denaturalization Laws • Placed severe restrictions on Jews • Could not marry non-Jews • Not allowed to attend or teach at German schools or universities • Prohibited from government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books • Established a pseudo-scientific basis identification • Only those with four German grandparents were of "German blood." • Jewish is who descends from three or four Jewish grand-parents • In the middle stood people of "mixed blood" of the "first or second degree."

  27. Kristallnacht“Night of the Broken Glass” • “The mob” trumps individualism

  28. The Rise of Hitler The Expansion of the Nazi StateThe Holocaust