History 12 Ms Leslie Nazi Germany
TotalitarianismGermany post 1933 • Trade unions gone • KPD gone • Non-Aryans out of gov’t jobs • Opponents harassed • Media censorship • Nazi appointed judges and police chiefs
Gestapo finding and eliminating communists, socialists, Jews, gays and gypsies. • Concentration camps • Night of the Long Knives
Youth Policy • To ensure future Nazis • Age 6 - Pimfen • Age 10 - Jungvolk • Age 14 - Hitler Youth • 18-25 Labour service - after 1935 2 years military service
Role of Women • Female doctors, teachers and gov’t workers forced to give up jobs • Look traditional • life should revolve round the three 'Ks': church, children, cooking • Goebbels said: "The mission of women is to be beautiful and to bring children into the world."
Hitler wants a high birth rate • Made a law German families to have at least 4 kids • Girls taught to keep ‘fit’ for child bearing
1933 - Law for Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring • Forced sterilization for: ‘congenital feeble-mindedness’, ‘schizophrenia’, ‘manic depression’, ‘ hereditary blindness and deafness’ and ‘serious physical deformities’. • 320,000 people sterilized before 1939
1935 the Law for Protection of German Blood • prohibited marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Aryans. • needed to produce certificates of fitness to marry.
Law for the Encouragement of Marriage • newly wed couples a loan of 1,000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had • 8 babies = a gold medal • Unmarried women can volunteer to have babies for SS or other Aryan men
Does it work? • No, people still have 1-2 babies • So - 1938 - you can divorce on grounds of infertility.
Abortion laws • 1933 - illegal and severe punishments • 1934 - death penalty • Abortions for eugenics = mandatory • 1936 - Himmler creates the Reich Central Office for Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion.
Homosexuals • 1920’s - Berlin = gay friendly • Nazis believe gay men were weak, effeminate men who could not fight for the German nation. • Gays diminish reproductive potential. • 1933 - gay organizations banned, gay party members killed • Gestapo makes lists
All gays were a target • Lesbian’s not a threat • Non-German gays not a threat, unless they had German partners. • If you ‘conformed’ you would be safe
How did they know? • 1933 - SA breaks into the Institute for Sexual Science. • Stole a list of thousands of gays.
Believed Homosexuality is a disease to be cured through hard work. • Sent to concentration camps • Medical experimentation to find ‘cure’
Red - Communist Green - Habitual Criminal Blue - Foreigner Pink - sex offender Purple - Jehovah Witness Black - a-social Brown - Roma Yellow - Jew Uninverted red - POW Letters = Ethnicity Black outline = woman who fraternized outside of race.
The numbers • 1928 - 1.2 million gays in Germany • 1933-45 - 100,000 arrested • Of which 50,000 are sentenced, of which 5,000 -15,000 go to concentration camps • Death rate in camps 60% - one of the highest
The Roma • 1933 - lifestyle made illegal • Labeled to have alien blood and needed to create a definition • They decided criminal behaviour is genetic
How did they find them? • Center for Research on Racial Hygiene and Demographic Biology in the Ministry of Health conducts a study • Interview a few and threaten them until they give up the names of relatives • The study concludes the Roma, having originated in India, were once Aryan but had been corrupted by mingling with lesser peoples during their long migration.
The result of the study? Forced sterilization • The most ‘pure’ Roma to be placed on a reservation to study.
In Berlin, Himmler established the Reich Central Office for the Suppression of the Gypsy Nuisance. • 1936 - race laws for Roma - Nuremberg Laws, the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Progeny, and the Law against Dangerous Habitual Criminals
1936 Olympics • police ordered the arrest and forcible relocation of all Roma in Greater Berlin to Marzahn, • open field located near a cemetery and sewage dump in eastern Berlin. • Later, these camps evolved into forced-labor camps for Roma.
On the Jews • One of the 25 points of Nazism states ‘Only those who are our fellow countrymen can become citizens. Only those who have German blood, regardless of creed, can be our countrymen. Hence no Jew can be a countryman
April 1933 - SA promotes boycott of Jewish businesses • 1935 - Banned fr0m public places • 1935 - Nuremberg Laws - strip citizenship, voting rights, marriage rights, take businesses, encouraged to emigrate.
Nov 9/10 1938 - Kristallnacht • French Jew assassinated a German diplomat in Paris • The SS retaliates in Germany • 814 shops looted, 191 synagogues burned, 36 Jews beaten to death • Gets its name from broken glass
Nov 12 - 20,000 Jews sent to Concentration camps • Majority of Germans OK with this
Laws against Jews get worse • Banned from theatres • Can’t buy jewelry or gold • Can’t walk on certain streets • Forced to wear yellow star • Ghettos • All this the get ready for the 1942 Final Solution.
Rest of population • Life is good • Stability, more jobs, business thrives
Re-armament • To get rid of the Treaty of Versailles • 1933 - leaves League of Nations • Hitler tells everyone he’ll disarm when they do = false sense of security • 1934 - announces re-armament • 1935 - conscription (helps with unemployment)
Builds the Luftwaffe even though it was illegal - becomes twice the size of the RAF • 1936 builds warships like the Bismark and Tirpits • 1938 - Hitler become War Minister • 1939 standing army of 730,000 with another million in reserves
The Economy • Autarchy • 1934 - 4 year plan for self-sufficiency • Continue to import food • 1939 - armament budget 16 times that on 1933 • Builds the Autobahn • 1938 - labour shortage
Government controls all aspect of employment even leisure time • Installs state welfare and social insurance plans • End :)